"குடுமியான்மலை" பக்கத்தின் திருத்தங்களுக்கிடையேயான வேறுபாடு

10,720 பைட்டுகள் சேர்க்கப்பட்டது ,  15 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்
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(stub on kudumiyanmalai.(will be updated on coming days))
 
(Content, images added)
குடிமியான்மலை, [[புதுக்கோட்டை]]யிலிருந்து ( [[தமிழ் நாடு]], [[இந்தியா]]) 26 கி.மீ. தூரத்தில் உள்ள சிற்றூர்.இங்குள்ள குகைகளில், [[பல்லவர்]] கால (கி.பி.7ஆம் நூற்றாண்டு) [[இசை]]க் குறிப்புகள் பொறிக்கப்பட்டுள்ள [[கல்வெட்டு]]கள் காணக்கிடைக்கின்றன.இங்குள்ள கோயிலின் ஆயிரம் கால் மண்டபமும் புகழ் பெற்றது ஆகும்.தமிழ் நாடு வேளாண் பலகலைக்கழகத்தின் பண்ணையும் இங்கு அமைந்துள்ளது.
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== வரலாறு ==
[[படிமம்:Kudumiamalai gopuram.gif|thumb|right|Kudumiamalai gopuram</br>(c) http://pudukkottai.org]]
 
It is one of the oldest historic townships in the tract. The township was called as Thiru-nalak-kunram (திருநாலக்குன்றம்) in earlier inscriptions and Sikhanallur (சிகாநல்லூர்) in later ones.
The village had extended all around a hillock, at the foot of which, on the east, is the famous Kudumiyamalai temple complex.
 
On and near a hillock there are four temples including a fine cave temple and a very large Siva temple, called Sikhanathasvami-koil (சிகாநாதசுவாமி கோயில்), containing exquisite sculptures.
The musical inscription found on a face of the cave-temple is important in the musical history of India. There are nearly a hundred and twenty inscriptions in Kudumiyamalai.
 
The 120 inscriptions in Kudumiyamalai, some of which are of great importance, help to trace the history of both of Kudumiyamalai, and of the region. The musical inscription and other early Pandya (7th–8th century AD.) inscriptions take the origin of the temple and the township to the beginning of the seventh century AD.
 
The presence of the musical inscription of seventh century script suggests that the rock-cut Siva shrine of Melak-koil could be one of the early monuments erected after the revival of Saivism. Siva was said to be a god revelling in playing Vina and in one of his poses he is depicted as holding the instrument in hand (Vina-dhara, ). The place should have been a centre of culture and much frequented by practitioners and students of music, for this unique musical inscription to be engraved at this place.
 
It was not until the Imperial Chozha time that the continuous epigraphic evidence of the growth of the Temple, and the intense activities connected with the Township commences. The early Chozha inscriptions (9th-10th century AD) are either in the Melak-koil or the walls of the second prakaram, but not in the main shrine, Sikha-natha. This suggests that the shrine was remodelled. Tradition ascribes the remodelling to the time of Mara-varman Sundara Pandya I (முதலாம் மாரவர்மன் சுந்தரபாண்டியன்). For half a century from about 1215 to 1265 AD, the old mandapam-s were renovated, and additional structures were put up with the co-operation of the nadu (நாடு, territorial assembly covering number of Ur-s, ஊர்) -s, nagaram (நகரம், guild of merchants)-s, ur (village assembly)-s and padaip-patru (படைப்பற்று, cantonment)-s of Konadu (கோனாடு) as well as private persons. A quota to be paid by every person living with 24 adam-s (one league) of the village was fixed and the temple collected contributions in money and in kind.
 
A significant measure of support came from a deva-dasi Umaiyalvi-Nachchi (உமையாள்வி நாச்சி) also referred to as the daughter of Durgai-aandar (துர்கை ஆண்டார்) who bought some of the temple's lands for 73,300 gold coins. This woman was clearly a philanthropist, building the Amman shrine adjoining the cave temple and consecrating the goddess Malaiya-mangai (மலையமங்கை) or Soundara-Nayaki. The temple acquired lands, gardens, and wells in the villages of Visalur (விசலூர்), Pinnangudi (பின்னங்குடி), Marungur (மருங்கூர்) or Marunguppatti (மருங்குபட்டி) and Karaiyur (காரையூர்), in addition to Melama-nallur (மேலமநல்லூர்). During this period the nadu to which Kudumiyamalai belonged seems to have been administered by Gangaiyaraya-s (காங்கேயராயர்) and Vanadarayan-s (வானதரையர்) of Bana chieftains as vassals of the Pandya kings.
 
On the gopuram of the temple are inscribed verses in Tamil; five of them are in praise of a Pandya king, and the others in praise of a Bana chief. One of these verses is attributed to the famous poet, Pugazhendi (புகழேந்தி). Kudumiyamalai felt the influence of the Vijayanagara administration, its prince Vira-Kampana-Udaiyar (வீர கம்பண உடையார்) figuring in inscriptions. Another Vijayanagara viceroy mentioned here is Gopa-timma of the Saluva family.
 
During the period of the Madurai Nayak-s (மதுரை நாயக்கர்) and afterwards, the Marungapuri (மருங்காபுரி) chiefs owned territories, which extended to within a few miles west of Kudumiyamalai, and the Vaiththur - Perungalur Pallava-rayar-s (வைத்தூர் பெருங்களூர் பல்லவராயர்) extended their conquests westward and brought the village of Kudumiyamalai under their rule. Sivendezhunta Pallava-rayar (சிவந்தெழுந்த பல்லவராயர்), who was a devout Saivite, is said to have added to the temple, gopuram-s, mandapam-s, halls, flower gardens, and groves, and built ther-s (temple cars) for it.
 
Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (இரகுநாத ராய தொண்டைமான், 1686-1730) and his minister Kurundha Pillai (குருந்த பிள்ளை) built the front mandapam of the rock-cut cave shrine, and Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (விஜயரகுநாத ராய தொண்டைமான், 1730-1769) built the steps to the mandapam. His chief military officer, Raghunatha Servaikar (ரகுநாத சேர்வைகாரர்), son of Lingappa Servaikar (லிங்கப்ப சேர்வைகாரர்), dug the tank to the north of the temple known as Sengala-nirodai (செங்கால நீரோடை), and built steps on its banks.
 
Pacchai Tondaiman (பச்சை தொண்டைமான்), who disputed in 1730 the succession of Vijaya Raghunatha Raya, took shelter within the walls of the temple and was besieged by the latter's force until he surrendered. Vijaya Raghunatha Raya was crowned in this temple. The mandapam in front of the Bhairava shrine is said to have been built by Ramaswami Iyer, who was Karbar of the Pudukkottai State. In 1865, Raja Ramachandra Tondaiman (இராமச்சந்திர தொண்டைமான்) celebrated a kumbhabhishekam (கும்பாபிஷேகம்) in this temple.
 
 
== வரலாற்றுச் சின்னங்கள் ==
 
There are four temples on and near a rock hill. At the foot of the hillock, in the east side, is the famous Kudumiyamalai temple complex.
The temple complex includes three temples. They are the cave temple called Melak-koil (மேலக்கோயில்) or Thiru-merrali (திருமேற்றளி), the Sikha-natha (சிகாநாதர்) or Kudumi-natha temple (குடுமிநாதர் கோயில்) and the Soundara-nayaki Amman (சௌந்திரநாயகி அம்மன்) temple.
What began in the early Pandya times (7th century AD) as a simple cave temple developed in time to one of the largest temple complex in the district.
There is another temple dedicated to Murugan (முருகன்), on the top of the hillock.
There is plethora of inscriptions here and the musical inscription found on a face of the cave-temple is important in the musical history of India.
 
[[படிமம்:Kudumiyamalai rockcut templ.jpg|thumb|right|Kudumiyamalai rockcut temple</br>(c) http://pudukkottai.org]]
 
 
=== MELAK-KOIL ===
 
 
The oldest part of the Kudumiyamalai temple is the rock-cut cave shrine called Melak-koil or Thiru-merrali. Once thought to be of Pallava authorship, this rock-cut temple is now considered as early Pandya, belonging to seventh century. It may be pointed that the cave temple in Sittannavasal (சித்தன்னவாசல்) was also originally considered to be of Pallava origin.
 
TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
 
The original rock-cut temple, facing east, measures twelve feet by thirteen in the sanctum and an ardha-mandapam (அர்த்த-மண்டபம்) twenty-three feet by eight. The two pillars and the two pilasters here are different in style from all the cave pillars in Tamilnadu in their being of the Chalukya prototype.
 
[[படிமம்:Kudumiyamalai rockcut dvara.jpg|thumb|right|துவாரபாலகர்</br>(c) http://pudukkottai.org]]
 
The Dvara-palaka-s (துவாரபாலகர்) are two-armed, and while both wear rudraksha beads, only one wears the yagnopavita (யஞ்ஞோபவீதம்). They may be portrait sculptures. Over the entrance to the inner shrine are four figures representing flying gods. There are also a valamburi (வலம்புரி, the trunk curled to right) Ganesa carved on the rock and two free standing, loose sculpture of the early Cholas period (9th-10th century) one representing the Chandikesvara (சண்டிகேஸ்வரர்) and the other the Somaskanda (சோமாஸ்கந்தர்) group.
The maha-mandapam (மகாமண்டபம்) in the front of the cave temple was built up in the reign of Kulottunga Chozha I (முதலாம் குலோத்துங்கச் சோழன்) (1070-1120) and the front mandapam was built by a Tondaiman (தொண்டைமான்) ruler.
[[படிமம்:Kudumiyamalai rockcut nayan.jpg|thumb|right|</br>(c) http://pudukkottai.org]]
To south of the rock-cut shrine, by the side of the celebrated musical inscription, is a large, about five-foot high figure of 'idampuri' (இடம்புரி, trunk curled to left) Ganesa cut in bas-relief.
Rishabha-rudha (ரிஷபாரூடர்) with 63 Nayanmar-s (நாயன்மார்கள்) relief on the cut in the vertical hillock.Far above this shrine, but a little to the north of it, cut in the vertical surface of the hillock and approached by a narrow and dangerous ledge are figures of sixty-three Nayanar-s and of Siva and Parvathi on the bull have been carved.
 
== சென்றடையும் வழி ==
 
Kudumiyamalai is located on Pudukkottai-Kodumbalur-Manapparai (புதுக்கோட்டை - கொடும்பாளூர்-மணப்பாறை) road about 20 Kilometers from Pudukkottai.
Following the road off the main road one reaches the foothills of the hillock where the temple complex is situated.
Town Bus facility is available from Pudukkottai.
 
== References and acknowledgements ==
[http://pudukkottai.org Pudukkottai.org]
 
 
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