"எகிப்தின் பன்னிரண்டாம் வம்சம்" பக்கத்தின் திருத்தங்களுக்கிடையேயான வேறுபாடு

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[[File:Upper part of a statuette of an unidentified queen. The nose was deliberately battered. Black granite. Early 12th Dynasty. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg|thumb|மேல் பகுதியற்ற எகிப்திய இராணியின் சிற்பம்]]
 
'''எகிப்தின் பனிரெண்டாம் வம்சம்''' ('''Twelfth Dynasty''' of Ancient Egypt - '''Dynasty XII''') [[எகிப்தின் மத்தியகால இராச்சியம்|எகிப்தின் மத்தியகால இராச்சியத்தை]] ஆண்ட நான்கு வம்சங்களில் இம்வம்சத்தவர் இரண்டாவது ஆகும். பிற வம்சங்கள் [[எகிப்தின் பதினொன்றாம் வம்சம்]], [[எகிப்தின் பதிமூன்றாம் வம்சம்]] மற்றும் [[எகிப்தின் பதினான்காம் வம்சம்]] ஆகும். இவ்வம்ச மன்னர்கள் எகிப்தின் மத்தியகால இராச்சியத்தை கிமு 1991 முதல் கிமு 1802 முடிய 189 ஆண்டுகள் ஆன்டனர். கிமு 1991=இல் இவ்வம்சத்தை நிறுவியவர் மனன்ர் முதலாம் அமெனெம்கத் ஆவார்.
 
==ஆட்சியாளர்கள்==
 
 
The chronology of the 12th dynasty is the most stable of any period before the [[New Kingdom]]. The Ramses Papyrus canon (1290 BC) in Turin gives 213 years (1991–1778 BC). [[Manetho]] stated that it was based in [[Thebes, Egypt|Thebes]], but from contemporary records it is clear that the first king moved its capital to a new city named "Amenemhat-itj-tawy" ("Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands"), more simply called [[Itjtawy]]. The location of Itjtawy has not been found, but is thought to be near the [[Fayyum]], probably near the royal graveyards at [[el-Lisht]]. Egyptologists consider this dynasty to be the apex of the [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt|Middle Kingdom]].
 
[[File:Head of Senusret III with youthful features. 12th Dynasty, c. 1870 BC. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich.jpg|thumb|மூன்றாம் செனுஸ்ரெத்தின் தலைச்சிற்பம், கிமு 1870]]
The order of its rulers is well known from several sources &mdash; two lists recorded at temples in [[Abydos, Egypt|Abydos]] and one at [[Saqqara]], as well as [[Manetho]]'s work. A recorded date during the reign of [[Senusret III]] can be correlated to the [[Sothic cycle]],<ref>Parker, Richard A., "The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties," in ''Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes'', 1977 [http://caeno.org/_Nabonassar/pdf/Parker_Sothic%20dating_si.pdf] </ref> consequently many events during this dynasty can be frequently assigned to a specific year.
 
===முதலாம் அமெனெம்கத் - முதலாம் செனுஸ்ரெத் ===
This dynasty was founded by [[Amenemhat I]], who may have been [[Vizier (Ancient Egypt)|vizier]] to the last [[pharaoh]] of [[Dynasty XI]], [[Mentuhotep IV]]. His armies campaigned south as far as the [[Second Cataract]] of the [[Nile River|Nile]] and into southern [[Canaan]]. He also reestablished diplomatic relations with the Canaanite state of [[Byblos]] and Hellenic rulers in the [[Aegean Sea]]. His son [[Senusret I]] followed his father's triumphs with an expedition south to the [[Third Cataract]], but the next rulers were content to live in peace until the reign of Senusret III.
 
===மூன்றாம் செனுஸ்ரெத் ===
[[File:Head of Senusret III with youthful features. 12th Dynasty, c. 1870 BC. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich.jpg|thumb|மூன்றாம் செனுஸ்ரெத்தின் தலைச்சிற்பம், கிமு 1870]]
Finding [[Nubia]] had grown restive under the previous rulers, Senusret sent punitive expeditions into that land; he also sent an expedition into the [[Levant]]. These military campaigns gave birth to a legend of a mighty warrior named [[Sesostris]], a story retold by Manetho, [[Herodotus]], and [[Diodorus Siculus]]. Manetho claimed the mythical Sesostris not only subdued the lands as had Senusret I, but also conquered parts of Canaan and had crossed over into Europe to annex [[Thrace]]. However, there are no records of the time, either in Egyptian or other contemporary writings that support these claims.
 
===மூன்றாம் அமெனெம்கத் ===
[[File:Upper part of a statue of Amenemhat III. 12th Dynasty, c. 1800 BC. State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich.jpg|thumb| மூன்றாம் அமெனெம்கத்தின் சிற்பம், கிமு 1800]]
 
 
Senusret's successor [[Amenemhat III]] reaffirmed his predecessor's foreign policy. However, after Amenemhat, the energies of this dynasty were largely spent, and the growing troubles of government were left to the dynasty's last ruler, Queen [[Sobekneferu]], to resolve. Amenemhat was remembered for the mortuary temple at [[Hawara]] that he built, known to Herodotus, Diodorus, and [[Strabo]] as the "[[Labyrinth]]". Additionally, under his reign, the marshy [[Fayyum]] was first exploited.
 
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