தினீஸ்: திருத்தங்களுக்கு இடையிலான வேறுபாடு

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'''தினீஸ்''' ( '''Thinis''' or '''This''') ([[எகிப்திய மொழி]]: '''Tjenu''')<ref>{{cite book |last1=Gauthier |first1=Henri |title=Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques Vol. 6 |pages=59, 77 |url=https://archive.org/details/Gauthier1929/page/n31}}</ref>) [[எகிப்தின் துவக்க கால அரச மரபுகள்|எகிப்தின் துவக்க கால அரச மரபுகளான]] (கிமு 3150 - கிமு 2686) [[எகிப்தின் முதல் வம்சம்]] மற்றும் [[எகிப்தின் இரண்டாம் வம்சம்|இரண்டாம் வம்சத்தினரின்]] தலைநகராக விளங்கியது. எகிப்தின் முதல் வம்ச மன்னர் [[நார்மெர்]] நிறுவிய தினீஸ் நகரம், [[எகிப்தின் மூன்றாம் வம்சம்|எகிப்தின் மூன்றாம் வம்சத்தவர்கள்]] காலத்தால் தங்கள் தலைநகரத்தை [[மெம்பிசு, எகிப்து|மெம்பிஸ்]] நகரத்திற்கு மாற்றினர். இதனால் தினீஸ் நகரத்தின் முக்கியத்துவம் குறைந்து, படிப்படியால அழிவுற்றது. தினீஸ் நகரம் குறித்தான கிமு 4,000 ஆண்டு காலத்திற்கு முந்தைய தொல்லியல் ஆதாரங்கள் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.
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'''தினீஸ்''' ( '''Thinis''' or '''This''') ([[எகிப்திய மொழி]]: '''Tjenu''')<ref>{{cite book |last1=Gauthier |first1=Henri |title=Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques Vol. 6 |pages=59, 77 |url=https://archive.org/details/Gauthier1929/page/n31}}</ref>) [[எகிப்தின் துவக்க கால அரச மரபுகள்|எகிப்தின் துவக்க கால அரச மரபுகளான]] (கிமு 3150 - கிமு 2686) [[எகிப்தின் முதல் வம்சம்]] மற்றும் [[எகிப்தின் இரண்டாம் வம்சம்|இரண்டாம் வம்சத்தினரின்]] தலைநகராக விளங்கியது. எகிப்தின் முதல் வம்ச மன்னர் [[நார்மெர்]] நிறுவிய தினீஸ் நகரம், [[எகிப்தின் மூன்றாம் வம்சம்|எகிப்தின் மூன்றாம் வம்சத்தவர்கள்]] காலத்தால் அழிந்து போனதால், மூன்றாம் வம்சத்தவர்கள் தங்கள் தலைநகரை [[மெம்பிசு, எகிப்து|மெம்பிஸ்]] நகரத்திற்கு மாற்றினர். தினீஸ் நகரம் குறித்தான கிமு 4,000 ஆண்டு காலத்திற்கு முந்தைய தொல்லியல் ஆதாரங்கள் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.
 
 
 
 
 
==Name and location==
{{hiero|tni or ṯn<ref>{{cite book |last1=Gauthier |first1=Henri |title=Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques Vol. 6 |pages=59, 77 |url=https://archive.org/details/Gauthier1929/page/n31}}</ref>|<center><hiero>X1:N35:Z4-T14-O49</hiero></center> '''or''' <center><hiero>V13:N35-O49</hiero></center>|align=right}}
The name ''Thinis'' ([[Greek language|Greek]]: Θίνις) is derived from [[Manetho]]'s use of the adjective ''Thinite'' to describe the pharaoh [[Menes]].<ref name="Verb">Verbrugghe and Wickersham 2001: 131</ref> Although the corresponding ''Thinis'' does not appear in [[Ancient Greek|Greek]], it is demanded by the [[Egyptian language|Egyptian]] original<ref name="Gardiner1"/> and is the more popular name among Egyptologists.<ref name="Verb"/><ref name="Bagnall"/> Also suggested is ''This'' (Θίς).<ref name="Tacoma">Tacoma 2006: 54 n. 63</ref>
 
In correcting a passage of [[Hellanicus of Lesbos|Hellanicus]] (b. 490 BCE), [[Jörgen Zoega]] amended
Τίνδων ὄνομα to Θὶν δὲ ᾧ ὄνομα.<ref name="Maspero2"/> [[Gaston Maspero|Maspero]] (1903) found that this revealed the name ''Thinis'' and also, from the same passage, a key geographic indicator: επιποταμίη ({{lang-en|on the river}}).<ref name="Maspero2"/> Maspero used this additional detail to support the theory, which included among its followers [[Jean-François Champollion]] and [[Nestor L'Hôte]], locating Thinis at modern-day Girga or a neighbouring town, possibly El-Birba.<ref name="Maspero2"/> Other proposals for Thinis' location have lost favour at the expense of the Girga-Birba theory: [[Auguste Mariette]], founder director of the [[Egyptian Museum]], suggested [[Kom el-Sultan]]; A. Schmidt, El-Kherbeh; and [[Heinrich Karl Brugsch]], [[Johannes Dümichen]] and others<ref>Moldenke 2008: 89</ref> supported El-Tineh, near Berdis.<ref name="Maspero2">Maspero 1903: 331 n.1</ref> Mainstream Egyptological consensus continues to locate Thinis at or near to either Girga,<ref name="Gardiner1"/><ref name="Ryholt1"/><ref name="Strudwick1"/> or El-Birba<ref name="Bagnall">Bagnall 1996: 334</ref> (where an inscribed statue fragment mentioning Thinis is said to have been found).<ref name="Wilkinson2">Wilkinson 2000: 354</ref>
 
==History==
[[File:Osireion.jpg|250px|thumb|right|Nearby [[Abydos, Egypt|Abydos]] (''[[Osireion]] pictured''), after ceding its political rank to Thinis, remained an important religious centre.]]
 
===Pre-dynastic and Early Dynastic periods===
Although the archaeological site of Thinis has never been located,<ref name="Anderson">Anderson 1999: 105</ref> evidence of population concentration in the [[Abydos, Egypt|Abydos]]-Thinis region dates from the fourth millennium BCE.<ref name="Anderson"/><ref>Patch 1991</ref> Thinis is also cited as the earliest royal [[Ancient Egyptian burial customs|burial-site]] in Egypt.<ref name="Clark">Clark 2004: 115</ref>
 
At an early point, the city of Abydos ceded its political rank to Thinis,<ref name="Maspero4"/> and although Abydos would continue to enjoy supreme religious importance,<ref name="Maspero4">Maspero 1903: 333</ref> its history and functions cannot be understood without reference to Thinis.<ref name="Wilkinson2"/> The role of Thinis as centre of the [[Thinite Confederacy]] (or Dynasty 0) and into the [[Early Dynastic Period of Egypt|Early Dynastic Period]] (specifically [[First dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty I]] and [[Second dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty II]])<ref>Lesley 1868: 154</ref> is taken from Manetho,<ref name="Wilkinson">Wilkinson 2000: 67</ref> and, according to Wilkinson (2000), seems to be confirmed by Dynasty I and late Dynasty II royal tombs at Abydos, the principal regional [[necropolis]].<ref name="Wilkinson"/>
 
===Old Kingdom to Second Intermediate Period===
[[File:Mentuhotep Seated edit.jpg|250px|thumb|right|[[Mentuhotep II]], pharaoh of the [[Thebes, Egypt|Theban]] [[Eleventh dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty XI]], finally brought Thinis under Theban sway during his campaign of reunification.]]
Such importance seems to have been short-lived: certainly, the national political role of Thinis ended at the beginning of [[Third dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty III]] (c. 2686 BCE),<ref name="Naj"/> when [[Memphis, Egypt|Memphis]] became the chief religious and political centre.<ref name="Naj">Najovits 2003: 171</ref> Nonetheless, Thinis retained its regional significance: during [[Fifth dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty V]] it was the probable seat of the "[[Overseer of Upper Egypt]]", an administrative official with responsibility for the Nile Valley south of the [[Nile Delta|Delta]],<ref>Bard 1999: 38</ref> and throughout [[Ancient Egypt|antiquity]] it was the eponymous capital of ''[[nome (Egypt)|nome]]'' [[Ta-wer|VIII of Upper Egypt]] and seat of its [[nomarch]].
 
During the wars of the [[First Intermediate Period]] (c. 2181&nbsp;– c. 2055 BCE), [[Ankhtifi]], nomarch of [[Hierakonpolis]], demanded recognition of his suzerainty from the "overseer of Upper Egypt" at Thinis,<ref name="Hamblin1">Hamblin 2006: 373</ref> and although the [[Defensive walls|city walls]], cited in Ankhtifi's autobiography,<ref name="Hamblin1"/> seem to have left Ankhtifi capable of only a [[show of force]],<ref name="Hamblin1"/> he appears to have purchased Thinis' neutrality with [[Cereal|grain]].<ref name="Brovarski">Brovarski 1999: 44</ref>
 
Following Ankhtifi's death, Thinis was the northernmost ''nome'' to fall under the sway of [[Intef II]], pharaoh of the [[Thebes, Egypt|Theban]] [[Eleventh dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty XI]] (c. 2118&nbsp;– c. 2069 BCE).<ref name="Brovarski"/><ref name="Hamblin2">Hamblin 2006: 375</ref> Progress north by the Theban armies was halted by [[Kheti III]], pharaoh of the [[Herakleopolis Magna|Heracleopolitan]] [[Ninth dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty IX]], in a battle at Thinis itself<ref name="Hamblin2"/> that is recorded in the ''[[Teaching for King Merykara]]'',<ref>Parkinson 1999: 225</ref> and, throughout Intef II's later years, his war against the Heracleopolitans and their allies, the nomarchs of [[Assyut]], was waged in the land between Thinis and Assyut.<ref name="Hamblin2"/>
 
As Thebes began to gain the upper hand, [[Mentuhotep II]] (c. 2061&nbsp;– c. 2010 BCE), during his campaign of reunification, brought Thinis, which had been in revolt, possibly at Heracleopolitan instigation<ref name="Hamblin3"/> and certainly with the support of an army under the command of the nomarch of Assyut,<ref name="Brovarski"/> firmly under his control.<ref name="Hamblin3">Hamblin 2006: 385</ref>
 
During the [[Second Intermediate Period]] (c. eighteenth century BCE), Thinis may have experienced resurgent autonomy: [[Kim Ryholt|Ryholt]] (1997) proposes that the Abydos dynasty of kings might better be called the "Thinite Dynasty"<ref>Ryholt 1997: 163</ref> and that, in any event, their royal seat was likely at Thinis, already a ''nome'' capital.<ref>Ryholt 1997: 165</ref>
 
===New Kingdom and Late Period===
The city's steady decline appears to have halted briefly during [[Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt|Dynasty XVIII]] (c. 1550&nbsp;– c. 1292 BCE), when Thinis enjoyed renewed prominence, based on its geographical connection to various [[Oasis|oases]]<ref>Redford 2003: 176 n. 58</ref> of possible military importance.<ref>Bryan 2006: 104</ref> Certainly, the office of mayor of Thinis was occupied by several notable [[New Kingdom]] figures: Satepihu, who participated in the construction of an [[obelisk]] for [[Hatshepsut]]<ref name="Bryan"/> and was himself subject of an exemplary [[Block statue (Egyptian)|block statue]];<ref>Wilkinson 1992: 30</ref> the [[herald]] Intef, an indispensable member of the royal household and the travelling-companion of [[Thutmose III]];<ref name="Bryan"/><ref>Redford 2003: 176</ref> and Min, tutor to the prince [[Amenhotep III]].<ref name="Bryan">Bryan 2006: 100</ref>
 
Nonetheless, Thinis had declined to a settlement of little significance by the historic period.<ref>Maspero 1903: 331</ref> The misleading reference on a seventh-century BCE [[Assyria]]n stele to "Nespamedu, king of Thinis" is nothing more than a reflection of Assyrian "ignorance of the subtlety of the Egyptian political hierarchy".<ref>Leahy 1979</ref>
 
Certainly, by the [[Egypt (Roman province)|Roman period]], Thinis had been supplanted as capital of its ''nome'' by [[Ptolemais Hermiou|Ptolemais]], perhaps even as early as that city's foundation by [[Ptolemy I Soter|Ptolemy I]].<ref name="Tacoma"/>
 
==Religion==
[[File:The judgement of the dead in the presence of Osiris.jpg|250px|thumb|right|A tableau from the ''[[Book of the Dead]]'' (''green-skinned [[Osiris]] is seated to the right''). In ancient Egyptian [[religious cosmology]], Thinis features as a mythical place in [[heaven]].]]
As each ''nome'' was home to the tomb and [[mummy]] of its dead ''nome''-god, so at Thinis was the temple and last resting-place of [[Anhur]],<ref name="Maspero5"/> whose epithets included "bull of Thinis",<ref>Pinch 2002: 177</ref> worshipped after his death<ref name="Maspero5">Maspero 1903: 163</ref> as [[Khenti-Amentiu]],<ref name="Clark"/> and who, as ''nome''-god, was placed at the head of the local [[ennead]].<ref>Maspero 1903: 205</ref>
 
The high priest of the temple of Anhur at Thinis was called the first prophet,<ref>Maspero 1903: 177</ref> or chief of seers,<ref>Kitchen 2003: 108</ref><ref>Frood 2007: 108</ref> a title that Maspero (1903) suggests is a reflection of Thinis' decline in status as a city.<ref>Maspero 1903: 177 n.1</ref>
 
One such chief of seers, Anhurmose, who died in the reign of [[Merneptah]] (c. 1213&nbsp;– c. 1203 BCE), broke with the tradition of his New Kingdom predecessors, who were buried at Abydos, and was laid to rest at Thinis itself.<ref name="Frood">Frood 2007: 107</ref>
 
The lion-goddess [[Mehit]] was also worshipped at Thinis,<ref>Pinch 2002: 164</ref><ref>Frood 2007: 267</ref> and the restoration of her temple there during Merneptah's reign was probably overseen by Anhurmose.<ref name="Frood"/>
 
There is evidence that [[Order of succession|succession]] to the office of chief of seers of Anhur at Thinis was familial: in the [[Eleventh dynasty of Egypt|Herakleopolitan period]], one Hagi succeeded his elder brother, also called Hagi, and their father to the post;<ref>Fischer 1987</ref> and, in the New Kingdom, [[Parennefer called Wennefer|Wenennefer]]<ref>Frood 2007: 97</ref> was succeeded in the priestly office by his son, Hori.<ref>Frood 2007: 189</ref>
 
In ancient Egyptian [[religious cosmology]], Thinis played a role as a mythical place in [[heaven]].<ref name="Massey"/> In particular, as set out in the ''[[Book of the Dead]]'', its [[Eschatology|eschatological]] significance can be seen in certain rituals: when the god [[Osiris]] triumphs, "joy goeth its round in Thinis", a reference to the celestial Thinis, rather than the earthly city.<ref name="Massey"/>
 
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