"மூத்து" பக்கத்தின் திருத்தங்களுக்கிடையேயான வேறுபாடு

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தொகுப்பு சுருக்கம் இல்லை
(" {{Infobox deity | type = எகிப்திய பெ..."-இப்பெயரில் புதிய பக்கம் உருவாக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது)
 
| offspring = [[கோன்சு]]
}}
[[Image:10 luxor museum - Mut - dated 19 dynasty c 1279 to 1213 BC.JPG|thumb|[[எகிப்தின் பத்தொன்பதாம் வம்சம்|எகிப்தின் 19-ஆம் வம்ச]] காலத்திய மூத் கடவுளின் சிலை, கிமு 1279–1213, [[அல்-உக்சுர் கோயில்கள்கோயில்|அல்-உக்சுர்லக்சர்]] அருங்காட்சியகம்]]
 
 
'''மூத்''' அல்லது '''மௌத்''' ('''Mut''' or '''Maut''' and '''Mout'''), [[பண்டைய எகிப்தியக் கடவுள்கள்|பண்டைய wasஎகிப்தியக் aகடவுள்களில்]] தாய்க் கடவுள் ஆவார். இவர் [[mother goddessஅமூன்]] worshippedஎனும் தலைமைக் inகடவுளின் மனைவி ஆவார். [[ancientஎகிப்திய Egyptமொழி]].யில் Herமூத் name literally meansஎன்பதற்கு ''mother'தாய்''' in the ancient [[Egyptian language]]எனப்பொருளாகும்.<ref>{{cite |last=te Velde |first=Herman |year=2002 |chapter=Mut |editor-first=D. B. |editor-last=Redford |title=The Ancient Gods Speak: A Guide to Egyptian Religion |page=238 |location=New York |publisher=Oxford University Press}}</ref>பண்டைய Mutஎகிப்தியப் hadபண்பாட்டு manyவரலாற்றில் differentமூத் aspectsகடவுளின் andதெய்வீகப் attributesபங்களிப்புகள் thatபல changedமாற்றங்களுடன் and evolvedகூடியது. a lot over the thousands of years of ancient Egyptian culture.
 
எகிப்திய தொன்மவியலில் நீரிலிருந்து தோன்றிய அனைத்து உயிர்களுக்கும் மூத் கடவுளே ஆதாரம் எனக்கருதப்படுகிறது. இவர் சூரியக் கடவுளும், படைப்புக் கடவுளான [[அமூன்|அமூனின்]] மனைவியாகக் கருதப்படுகிறார். மேலும் மூத் தெய்வம் உலகத்தின் தாயாகவும் கருதப்படுகிறார். இத்தாய் கடவுளின் மகனாக [[கோன்சு]] உள்ளார்.
Mut was considered a primal deity, associated with the primordial waters of [[Nu (mythology)| Nu]] from which everything in the world was born. Mut was sometimes said to have given birth to the world through [[parthenogenesis]], but more often she was said to have a husband, the solar creator god [[Amun-Ra]]. Although Mut was believed by her followers to be the mother of everything in the world, she was particularly associated as the mother of the lunar child god [[Khonsu]]. At the [[Temple of Karnak]] in Egypt's capital city of Thebes, the family of Amun-Ra, Mut and Khonsu were worshipped together as the Theban Triad.
[[பண்டைய எகிப்து|பண்டைய எகிப்தின்]] தலைநகரான [[தீபை]] நகரத்தில் உள்ள [[கர்னாக்]] கோயிலில் [[அமூன்]], மூத் மற்றும் கோன்சு கடவுள்களை மக்கள் வழிபட்டனர்.
 
மூத் கடவுள் தலையில் இரட்டை மணிமகுடம், [[கழுகு|கழுகை]] தாங்கிய உலகின் சக்தியாக சித்தரிக்கப்படுகிறார். மூத் கடவுளின் வழிபாடு உச்சநிலையில் இருக்கையில், எகிப்தின் [[பார்வோன்]]கள், மூத் கடவுளின் வழிபாட்டை ஆதரித்தனர். [[ஒபெத் திருவிழா]] போன்ற முக்கிய விழாக்களின் போது மூத் தாய்க் கடவுளின் வழிபாடு முக்கியத்துவம் வாய்ந்தது. மூத் தெய்வத்திற்கான கோயில், [[தீபை]] அருகே உள்ள [[கர்னாக்]]கில் உள்ளது.
In art, Mut was usually depicted as a woman wearing the double crown of the kings of Egypt, representing her power over the whole of the land.
 
[[பழைய எகிப்து இராச்சியம்|பழைய எகிப்திய இராச்சியத்தில்]] (கிமு 2686 – கிமு 2181) [[அமூன்]] கடவுளின் துணையாக மூத் தெய்வம் வழிபடபட்டது. [[புது எகிப்து இராச்சியம்|புது எகிப்திய இராச்சியத்தில்]] மூத் தெய்வத்தின் முக்கியத்துவம் குறைக்கப்பட்டு, [[மேல் எகிப்து]] பகுதியில் உள்ள [[தீபை]] நகரத்தின் காவல் தெய்வம் என்ற நிலைக்குச் சென்றது.<ref>Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). ''The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt''. Thames & Hudson. pp. 153–155, 169</ref>
During the high point of Mut's cult, the rulers of Egypt would support her worship in their own way to emphasize their own authority and right to rule through an association with Mut. Mut was involved in many ancient Egyptian festivals such as the [[Opet Festival]] and the [[Beautiful Festival of the Valley]]. Her greatest temple was located at Karnak in Thebes.
==இதனையும் காண்க==
 
* [[பண்டைய எகிப்தியக் கடவுள்கள்]]
==Mythology==
* [[பண்டைய எகிப்திய அரசமரபுகள்]]
{{Ancient Egyptian religion}}
Mut was the consort of [[Amun]], the patron deity of pharaohs during the [[Middle Kingdom of Egypt|Middle Kingdom]] (c. 2055–1650 BC) and [[New Kingdom of Egypt|New Kingdom]] (c. 1550–1070 BC). [[Amaunet]] and [[Wosret]] may have been Amun's consorts early in Egyptian history, but Mut, who did not appear in texts or art until the late Middle Kingdom, displaced them. In the New Kingdom, Amun and Mut were the patron deities of [[Thebes, Egypt|Thebes]], a major city in [[Upper Egypt]], and formed a cultic triad with their son, [[Khonsu]]. Her other major role was as a lioness deity, an Upper Egyptian counterpart to the fearsome [[Lower Egypt]]ian goddess [[Sekhmet]].<ref>Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). ''The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt''. Thames & Hudson. pp. 153–155, 169</ref>
 
==Depictions==
[[File:Fragment of a stela showing Amun enthroned. Mut, wearing the double crown, stands behind him. Both are being offered by Ramesses I, now lost. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg|thumb|left|Fragment of a stela showing Amun enthroned. Mut, wearing the double crown, stands behind him. Both are being offered by Ramesses I, now lost. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London]]
In [[art]], Mut was pictured as a woman with the wings of a vulture, holding an [[ankh]], wearing the united [[Crown (headgear)|crown]] of Upper and Lower Egypt and a dress of bright red or blue, with the [[feather]] of the goddess [[Ma'at]] at her feet.
 
Alternatively, as a result of her assimilations, Mut is sometimes depicted as a [[cobra]], a [[cat]], a [[cow]], or as a [[lion]]ess as well as the vulture.
[[File:Relief of the Goddess Mut, ca. 1336-1213 B.C.E., 79.120.jpg|right|thumbnail|Relief of the Goddess Mut, c. 1336–1213 B.C.E., 79.120, [[Brooklyn Museum]]]]
 
Before the end of the New Kingdom almost all images of female figures wearing the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt were depictions of the goddess Mut, here labeled "Lady of Heaven, Mistress of All the Gods". The last image on this page shows the goddess's facial features which mark this as a work made sometime between late Dynasty XVIII and relatively early in the reign of Ramesses II (c. 1279–1213 BC).<ref>{{cite web|title=Relief of the Goddess Mut|url=http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3877/Relief_of_the_Goddess_Mut/set/b2a76d2df5ced4787e5bd55a53f53d33?referring-q=79.120|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160307081058/https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3877/Relief_of_the_Goddess_Mut/set/b2a76d2df5ced4787e5bd55a53f53d33?referring-q=79.120|archive-date=7 March 2016|website=Brooklyn Museum|accessdate=17 June 2014}}</ref>
 
==In Karnak==
[[File:JebelBarkalMutTemple1.jpg|thumb|left|Jebel Barkal Temple of Mut: Amun accompanied by Mut pictured inside Jebel Barkal]]
[[Image:Mut Temple Map.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Precinct of Mut at the [[Karnak]] temple complex]]
There are temples dedicated to Mut still standing in modern-day Egypt and Sudan, reflecting the widespread worship of her. The center of her cult in Sudan became the [[Temple of Mut, Jebel Barkal|Mut Temple]] of [[Jebel Barkal]] and in Egypt the temple in [[Precinct of Mut|Karnak]]. That temple had the statue that was regarded as an embodiment of her real ''[[Egyptian soul|ka]]''. Her devotions included daily rituals by the [[pharaoh]] and her [[priest]]esses. Interior reliefs depict scenes of the priestesses, currently the only known remaining example of worship in ancient Egypt that was exclusively administered by women.
 
Usually the queen served as the chief priestess in the temple rituals. The pharaoh participated also and would become a deity after death. In the case when the pharaoh was female, records of one example indicate that she had her daughter serve as the high priestess in her place. Often priests served in the administration of temples and oracles where priestesses performed the traditional religious rites. These rituals included music and drinking.
 
The pharaoh [[Hatshepsut]] had the ancient [[Precinct of Mut|temple to Mut]] at Karnak rebuilt during her rule in the [[Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt|Eighteenth Dynasty]]. Previous excavators had thought that [[Amenhotep III]] had the temple built because of the hundreds of statues found there of [[Sekhmet]] that bore his name. However, Hatshepsut, who completed an enormous number of temples and public buildings, had completed the work seventy-five years earlier. She began the custom of depicting Mut with the crown of both Upper and Lower Egypt. It is thought that Amenhotep III removed most signs of Hatshepsut, while taking credit for the projects she had built.
 
Hatshepsut was a pharaoh who brought Mut to the fore again in the [[Egyptian pantheon]], identifying strongly with the goddess. She stated that she was a descendant of Mut. She also associated herself with the image of [[Sekhmet]], as the more aggressive aspect of the goddess, having served as a very successful [[warrior]] during the early portion of her reign as pharaoh.
 
Later in the same dynasty, [[Akhenaten]] suppressed the worship of Mut as well as the other deities when he promoted the monotheistic worship of his sun god, [[Aten]]. Tutankhamun later re-established her worship and his successors continued to associate themselves with Mut afterward.
 
[[Ramesses II]] added more work on the Mut temple during the [[nineteenth dynasty of Egypt|nineteenth dynasty]], as well as rebuilding an earlier temple in the same area, rededicating it to Amun and himself. He placed it so that people would have to pass his temple on their way to that of Mut.
 
[[Kushite]] pharaohs expanded the Mut temple and modified the Ramesses temple for use as the shrine of the celebrated birth of Amun and Khonsu, trying to integrate themselves into divine succession. They also installed their own [[priest]]esses among the ranks of the priestesses who officiated at the temple of Mut.
 
The Greek [[Ptolemaic dynasty]] added its own decorations and priestesses at the temple as well and used the authority of Mut to emphasize their own interests.
 
Later, the Roman emperor [[Tiberius]] rebuilt the site after a severe flood and his successors supported the temple until it fell into disuse, sometime around the third century AD. Later Roman officials used the stones from the temple for their own building projects, often without altering the images carved upon them.
 
== Personal piety ==
In the wake of [[Akhenaten]]'s revolution, and the subsequent restoration of traditional beliefs and practices, the emphasis in personal piety moved towards greater reliance on divine, rather than human, protection for the individual. During the reign of Rameses II a follower of the goddess Mut donated all his property to her temple and recorded in his tomb:
<blockquote>
And he [Kiki] found Mut at the head of the gods, Fate and fortune in her hand, Lifetime and [[sail (hieroglyph)|breath]] of life are hers to command ... I have not chosen a protector among men. I have not sought myself a protector among the great ... My heart is filled with my mistress. I have no fear of anyone. I spend the night in quiet sleep, because I have a protector.<ref>{{cite book |title=Of God and Gods: Egypt, Israel, and the Rise of Monotheism |authorlink=Jan Assmann |first=Jan |last=Assmann |pages=83–84 |publisher=[[University of Wisconsin Press]] |year=2008 |isbn=0-299-22554-2}}</ref></blockquote>
 
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== வெளி இணைப்புகள் ==
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