"கனடாவின் முதல் குடிமக்கள்" பக்கத்தின் திருத்தங்களுக்கிடையேயான வேறுபாடு

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'''கனடாவின் முதல் குடிமக்கள்''' ('''First Nations''' ({{lang-fr|Premières Nations}} 16-ஆம் நூற்றான்டில் [[கனாடாவில்]] ஐரோப்பியர்கள் குடியேறுவதற்கு முன்னர், பல்லாயிரம் ஆண்டுகளாக கனடாவில் தொடர்ந்து வாழும் [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பூர்வ குடிமக்கள்]] ஆவார். இப்பூர்வ குடிமக்களில் செவ்விந்தியர்கள் 60,000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னர் வட [[ஆசியா]]விலிருந்து [[கனடா]], [[அமெரிக்க ஐக்கிய நாடுகள்]] மற்றும் மத்திய அமெரிக்க நாடுகளில் புலம்பெயர்ந்தனர் என வரலாற்று அறிஞர்கள் கருதுகின்றனர். <ref>[https://www.dinamani.com/weekly-supplements/siruvarmani/2012/jun/23/அமெரிக்காவின்-பூர்வகுடிகள்-515884.html வட ஆசியாவிலிருந்து அமெரிக்காவுக்கு புலம்பெயர்ந்த செவ்விந்தியர்கள்]</ref>பூர்வ குடிமக்களின் பண்பாட்டைப் பாதுகாத்தல், அரசியல், கல்வி, மொழி போன்றவற்றை வளர்த்தல், இவர்களுக்கு எதிராக நடக்கும் ஆக்கிரமிப்புகளை தடுத்தல் போன்ற விழிப்புணர்வு ஏற்படுத்த, 23 டிசம்பர் 1994 அன்று [[ஐக்கிய நாடுகள் அவை]] இயற்றிய தீர்மானத்தின் படி, 1995-ஆம் ஆண்டு ஆகஸ்டு மாதம், 9-ஆம் நாள் அன்று '''உலக பூர்வ குடிமக்கள் நாள்''' (International Day of the World’s Indigenous People) உலகம் முழுவதும் கடைபிடிக்கப்படுகிறது.
 
[[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பூர்வ குடிமக்கள்]] '''இன்யூட்''' மற்றும் '''மெடிஸ்''' என்று அழைக்கப்படுகின்றனர்.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014642/1100100014643 |title=Terminology |publisher=Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada |date=October 1, 2012 |access-date=January 21, 2013 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130114030734/http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014642/1100100014643 |archive-date=January 14, 2013 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> கனடாவின் முதல் குடிமக்கள் [[ஒன்றாரியாஒன்றாரியோ]] மற்றும் [[பிரிட்டிசு கொலம்பியா]] மாகாணங்களில் அதிகம் வாழ்ந்தனர்.<ref name="one">{{cite web|url=http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=59 |title=Assembly of First Nations – The Story |publisher=The Assembly of First Nations |access-date=October 6, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090802164225/http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=59 |archive-date=August 2, 2009 }}</ref>
 
கனடாவின் அரசியலமைப்புச் சட்டத்தின் படி, கனடாவின் முதல் குடிமக்களான [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பூர்வ குடிமக்களை]] உடல் மற்றும் மன அளவில் கன்டாவின் முதல் குடிமக்களாகப் போற்றப்படுகின்றனர்.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.chrc-ccdp.gc.ca/eng/content/equal-employment-opportunities-0 |title=Equal Employment Opportunities |work=Employer Obligations |publisher=[[Canadian Human Rights Commission]] |access-date=December 21, 2019}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web |url=https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/dict/pop127-eng.cfm |title=Visible minority |work=Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016 |publisher=Statistics Canada |date=October 25, 2017}}</ref>
 
====கனடாவின் மெட்டி இன முதல் குடிமக்கள் ====
மெட்டி மக்கள் ஐரோப்பிய பழங்குடி இனத்தவர்களுக்கு பிறந்தவர்கள்.<ref>
{{cite web
</ref>குறிப்பாக பிரஞ்ச்ப் பழங்குடியினருக்கு பிறந்தவர்கள்.<ref>Rinella, Steven. 2008. ''American Buffalo: In Search of A Lost Icon''. NY: Spiegel and Grau.</ref> வரலாற்றில் மெட்டி மக்கள் பிரஞ்ச், ஸ்காட்லாந்து நாடுகளில் தோல் வணிக மக்களின் வழித்தோன்றல்கள் ஆவார். மெட்டி மக்கள் மெட்டி பிரஞ்ச் மொழி, கனடிய பிரஞ்ச் மொழி மற்றும் கன்டிய ஆங்கில மொழிகளை இன்றளவும் பேசுகின்றனர்.<ref name="well">{{Cite book | last1 = Bardwell | first1 = Lawrence J. | last2=Dorion|first2=Leah|last3=Hourie|first3=Audreen | title = Métis legacy Michif culture, heritage, and folkways|work=Métis legacy series | publisher = [[Gabriel Dumont Institute]] |volume=2 | year =2006 | isbn = 0-920915-80-9}}</ref>
 
===கனடா காலனியாதிக்கப் போர்கள்===
====Colonial wars====
[[File:Conference Between the French and Indian Leaders Around a Ceremonial Fire by Vernier.jpg|thumb|பிரஞ்ச் மற்றும் கன்டாவின் முதல் குடிமக்கள் மாநாடு]]
{{Main|French and Indian Wars|Father Rale's War|Father Le Loutre's War}}
1740-ஆம் ஆண்டுகளில் கனடாவின் நிலத்தை சுரண்டுவதை எதிர்த்து [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பூர்வ குடிமக்கள்]], பிராஞ்ச் நாட்டு மற்றும் அதன் 6 கூட்டாளி நாட்டுப் படைகளுடன் பல போர்கள் செய்தனர்.<ref>In [[British America]] nomenclature, the sitting British monarch became the war's namesake, such as [[King William's War]] or [[Queen Anne's War]]. Because there had already been a [[King George's War]] in the 1740s, British colonists named the second war in [[George II of Great Britain|King George II's]] reign after their opponents, so it became the ''French and Indian War''.</ref>
 
1763-ஆம் ஆண்டில் கனடா பூர்வ குடிகள் நிலங்களை ஒப்பந்தம் மூலம் பிராஞ்ச் நாட்டவர்கள் விலை கொடுத்து வாங்கினர். இருப்பினும் பெரும்பாலான பூர்வ குடிமக்களின் நில உரிமை குறித்து இதுவரை தீர்வு எட்டப்படவில்லை
[[File:Conference Between the French and Indian Leaders Around a Ceremonial Fire by Vernier.jpg|thumb|Conference between the French and First Nations leaders by [[Émile Louis Vernier]].]]
 
===அடிமை முறை===
Allied with the French, the first nations of the [[Wabanaki Confederacy]] of [[Acadia]] fought six colonial wars against the British and their native allies (See the [[French and Indian Wars]], [[Father Rale's War]] and [[Father Le Loutre's War]]).<ref>In [[British America]] nomenclature, the sitting British monarch became the war's namesake, such as [[King William's War]] or [[Queen Anne's War]]. Because there had already been a [[King George's War]] in the 1740s, British colonists named the second war in [[George II of Great Britain|King George II's]] reign after their opponents, so it became the ''French and Indian War''.</ref> In the second war, [[Queen Anne's War]], the British conquered [[Acadia]] (1710). The sixth and final [[French and Indian War|colonial war]] between the nations of [[Ancien Régime in France|France]] and [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain]] (1754–1763), resulted in the French giving up their claims and the British claimed the lands of [[Canada (New France)|Canada]].
1770களில் கனடாவின் முதல் குடிமக்களை பிற [[பூர்வ குடிகள்]] அடிமைப்படுத்தி, சமயச் சடங்குகளின் போது பலியிட்டனர்.
 
<ref>Donald, Leland (1997). Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, University of California Press, p. 237</ref> .<ref>{{Cite encyclopedia
In this final war, the [[Franco-Indian alliance]] brought together Americans, First Nations and the French, centred on the [[Great Lakes]] and the [[Illinois Country]].<ref name="volo">{{cite book|last1=Volo |first1=James M. |last2=Volo |first2=Dorothy Denneen |title=Family Life in Native America |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-9Nfy4ztuPwC&pg=PA316 |access-date=August 31, 2009 |date=September 30, 2007 |publisher=[[Greenwood Publishing Group]] |isbn= 978-0-313-33795-6 |page=316}}</ref> The alliance involved French settlers on the one side, and on the other side were the Abenaki, Odawa, [[Menominee]], [[Ho-Chunk]] (Winnebago), [[Mississaugas]], [[Illinois Confederation|Illiniwek]], Huron-[[Petun]], [[Potawatomi]] etc.<ref name="volo" /> It allowed the French and the Indians to form a haven in the middle-[[Ohio River|Ohio valley]] before the open conflict between the European powers erupted.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Calloway |first1=Colin G. |title=The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in Native American Communities (Studies in North American Indian History) |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5YWahCbKiUoC&pg=PA6 |access-date=August 31, 2009 |date=April 28, 1995 |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |isbn=978-0-521-47569-3 |page=6}}</ref>
 
In the [[Royal Proclamation of 1763]], the British recognized the treaty rights of the indigenous populations and resolved to only settle those areas purchased lawfully from the indigenous peoples. Treaties and land purchases were made in several cases by the British, but the lands of several indigenous nations remain unceded and/or unresolved.
 
====Slavery====
{{Main|Slavery in Canada}}
 
First Nations routinely captured slaves from neighbouring tribes. Sources report that the conditions under which First Nations slaves lived could be brutal, with the [[Makah]] tribe practicing death by [[starvation]] as punishment and Pacific coast tribes routinely performing ritualized killings of slaves as part of social ceremonies into the mid-1800s.<ref>Donald, Leland (1997). Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, University of California Press, p. 237</ref> Slave-owning tribes of the fishing societies, such as the [[Yurok (tribe)|Yurok]] and [[Haida people|Haida]] lived along the coast from what is now [[Alaska]] to [[California]].<ref>{{Cite encyclopedia
| title =Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
| encyclopedia= Slavery in the New World
| url = http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156
}}
</ref>
</ref> Fierce warrior indigenous [[History of slavery|slave-traders]] of the Pacific Northwest Coast raided as far south as California. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves and their descendants being considered [[Prisoner of war|prisoners of war]]. Some tribes in British Columbia continued to segregate and ostracize the descendants of slaves as late as the 1970s.<ref>Donald, 1997, pp. 249–251</ref> Among Pacific Northwest tribes about a quarter of the population were slaves.<ref name="afua"/>
 
Theகனடாவின் citizensபிராஞ்ச் ofநாட்டவர்கள் Newஅடிமைப்படுத்திய Franceபூர்வ receivedகுடி slaves as gifts from their allies among First Nations peoples. Slaves were prisoners taken in raids against the villages of the [[Fox (tribe)|Fox nation]]அடிமைகளை, a tribe that was an ancient rival of the [[Miami tribe|Miami people]] andதங்கள் theirகூட்டாளி [[Algonquianநாட்டவர்களிடம் peoples|Algonquian]]அன்பளிப்பாகப் alliesபெற்றனர்.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://historycooperative.org/journal/slavery-the-fox-wars-and-the-limits-of-alliance-2/|title=Slavery, the Fox Wars, and the Limits of Alliance|last=Rushforth|first=Brett|date=January 2006|publisher=William and Mary Quarterly|volume=63|format=digitised online by History cooperative|issue=1|df=mdy-all}} Rushforth confuses the two Vincennes explorers. François-Marie was 12 years old during the First Fox War.
</ref>ஆப்பிரிக்க கருப்பின அடிமைகளை விட கனடாவின் பிராஞ்ச் நாட்டவர்களிடம் கனடா பூர்வ குடிகள் எளிதாக அடிமையாக்கப்பட்டனர்.<ref>
</ref>
Native (or "pani", a corruption of [[Pawnee people|Pawnee]]) slaves were much easier to obtain and thus more numerous than African slaves in New France, but were less valued. The average native slave died at 18, and the average African slave died at 25<ref name="afua"/> (the average European could expect to live until the age of 35<ref>
{{cite web|url=http://sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/history10/activity/unit2/u2act1sis.html |archive-url=https://archive.today/20120721183644/http://sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/history10/activity/unit2/u2act1sis.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 21, 2012 |work=Saskatchewan Education. (1992). History 10: Social Organizations A Teacher's Activity Guide |title=Standard of Living in 18th century Canada :section 2 |access-date=October 9, 2009 }}
</ref>). கனடாவின் பூர்வ குடிமக்களின் அடிமைப் பெண்களை பிராஞ்ச் நாட்டவர்கள் பாலியல் அடிமைகளாக கொடூரமாக நடத்தினர். 1793-இல் படிப்படியாக பூர்வ குடிகளை அடிமையாக்கும் முறை ஒழிக்கப்பட்டது. மேலும் பிற பகுதிகளிலிருந்து அடிமைகளை கன்டாவிற்கு கொண்டு வரும் முறைக்கு முடிவு கட்டப்பட்டது. ஆனால் ஏற்கனவே கனடாவில் அடிமைகளாக உள்ள குழந்தைகளை மட்டும் 25வது வயதில் அடிமைத் தளையிலிருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டனர். மற்றவர்களை சாகும் வரை அடிமைகளாக வைத்திருந்தனர்.<ref name="afua">
</ref>). By 1790 the [[Abolitionism in the United Kingdom|abolition movement]] was gaining ground in Canada and the ill intent of slavery was evidenced by an incident involving a slave woman being violently abused by her slave owner on her way to being sold in the United States.<ref name="afua"/> The [[Act Against Slavery]] of 1793 legislated the gradual abolition of slavery: no slaves could be imported; slaves already in the province would remain enslaved until death, no new slaves could be brought into [[Upper Canada]], and children born to female slaves would be slaves but must be freed at age 25.<ref name="afua">
{{Cite book|last1= Cooper |first1= Afua |title= The Hanging of Angelique: Canada, Slavery and the Burning of Montreal |date= February 2006 |publisher= [[HarperCollins|HarperCollins Canada]] |isbn= 978-0-00-200553-1 }}
</ref>1833-ஆம் ஆண்டில் கனடாவில் அடிமை ஒழிப்புச் சட்டம் கொண்டுவரப்பட்டது. <ref name=SectionLXIV>
</ref> The Act [[coming into force|remained in force]] until 1833 when the [[Parliament of the United Kingdom|British Parliament's]] [[Slavery Abolition Act 1833|Slavery Abolition Act]] finally abolished slavery in all parts of the [[British Empire]].<ref name=SectionLXIV>
{{cite web|url=http://www.pdavis.nl/Legis_07.htm |title=Slavery Abolition Act 1833; Section LXIV |date=August 28, 1833 |access-date=June 3, 2008}}</ref>வரலாற்று அறிஞர் மார்சல் டியுடேல் என்பவர் அடிமைகள் குறித்து வைத்திருந்த 4092 ஆவணங்களின் படி, பிராஞ்ச் மற்றும் ஆங்கிலேயேர்களின் கையில் 2692 [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடா பூர்வ குடிமக்கள்]] மற்றும் 1400 ஆப்பிரிக்க கருப்பின அடிமைகள் இருந்ததாக கூறுகிறார். கனடா வரலாற்றில் Historian [[Marcel Trudel]] has documented 4,092 recorded slaves throughout Canadian history, of which 2,692 were Aboriginal people, owned by the French, and 1,400 blacks owned by the British, together owned by approximately 1,400 masters.<ref name="afua"/> Trudelபூர்வ alsoகுடிமக்களுக்கும், notedபிராஞ்ச் 31நாட்டவர்களுக்கும் marriagesஇடையே took31 placeதிருமணங்கள் betweenநடைபெற்றதாக French colonists and Aboriginal slavesகூறப்படுகிறது.<ref name="afua"/>
 
====1775–1815====
[[File:Fur traders in canada 1777.jpg|thumb|Fur traders in Canada, trading with First Nations, 1777]]
 
===அரசியல் அமைப்புகள்===
British agents worked to make the First Nations into military allies of the British, providing supplies, weapons, and encouragement. During the [[American Revolutionary War]] (1775–1783) most of the tribes supported the British. In 1779, the Americans [[Sullivan Expedition|launched a campaign]] to burn the villages of the Iroquois in New York State.<ref>
[[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்களுக்கான]] தன்னாட்சி அமைப்பில் கல்வி வாரியம், சுகாதார வாரியம் மற்றும் [[நகராட்சி]] ஆகிய அமைப்புகளுக்கு தன்னாட்சி அதிகாரம் வழங்கப்பட்டது.<ref>{{cite web
Max M. Mintz, ''Seeds of Empire: The American Revolutionary Conquest of the Iroquois'' (New York University Press, 1999).
</ref> The refugees fled to Fort Niagara and other British posts, and remained permanently in Canada. Although the British ceded the Old Northwest to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in 1783, it kept fortifications and trading posts in the region until 1795. The British then evacuated American territory, but operated trading posts in British territory, providing weapons and encouragement to tribes that were resisting American expansion into such areas as Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin.<ref>
Robert S. Allen, ''His Majesty's Indian allies: British Indian policy in the defence of Canada, 1774–1815'' (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1992)</ref> Officially, the British agents discouraged any warlike activities or raids on American settlements, but the Americans became increasingly angered, and this became one of the [[Origins of the War of 1812|causes of the War of 1812]].<ref>
David S. Heidler, and Jeanne T., Heidler, eds., ''Encyclopedia of the War of 1812'' (1997) pp=253, 392</ref>
 
In the war, the great majority of First Nations supported the British, and many fought under the aegis of [[Tecumseh]].<ref>
Herbert C. W. Goltz, "Tecumseh". in John English, ed., ''Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online: V (1801–1820)'' (2000) [http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?BioId=36806&query=tecumseh online]
</ref> But Tecumseh died in battle in 1813 and the Indian coalition collapsed. The British had long wished to create a neutral Indian state in the American Old Northwest,<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Smith | first1 = Dwight L. | year = 1989 | title = A North American Neutral Indian Zone: Persistence of a British Idea | journal = Northwest Ohio Quarterly | volume = 61 | issue = 2–4| pages = 46–63 }}
</ref> and made this demand as late as 1814 at the peace negotiations at Ghent. The Americans rejected the idea, the British dropped it, and Britain's Indian allies lost British support. In addition, the Indians were no longer able to gather furs in American territory. Abandoned by their powerful sponsor, Great Lakes-area natives ultimately assimilated into American society, migrated to the west or to Canada, or were relocated onto reservations in Michigan and Wisconsin.<ref>
Colin G. Calloway, "The End of an Era: British-Indian Relations in the Great Lakes Region after the War of 1812," ''Michigan Historical Review'' 1986 12(2): 1–20. 0890–1686
</ref> Historians have unanimously agreed that the Indians were the major losers in the War of 1812.<ref>
Wesley B. Turner, ''The War of 1812: The War That Both Sides Won'' (2000)</ref>
 
===19th century===
{{See also|North-West Rebellion|Red River Rebellion}}
[[File:Kane Assiniboine hunting buffalo.jpg|thumb|''[[Assiniboine people|Assiniboine]] hunting buffalo'', c. 1851]]
Living conditions for Indigenous people in the [[Canadian Prairies|prairie]] regions deteriorated quickly. Between 1875 and 1885, settlers and hunters of European descent contributed to hunting the North American bison almost to extinction; the construction of the [[Canadian Pacific Railway]] brought large numbers of European settlers west who encroached on Indigenous territory. European Canadians established governments, police forces, and [[Court|courts of law]] with different foundations from indigenous practices. Various epidemics continued to devastate Indigenous communities. All of these factors had a profound effect on Indigenous people, particularly those from the plains who had relied heavily on bison for food and clothing. Most of those nations that agreed to treaties had negotiated for a guarantee of food and help to begin farming.<ref name="finkelconrad">{{Cite book | last1 = Finkel | first1 = Alvin | last2 = Conrad | first2 = Margaret Conrad | title = History of the Canadian Peoples, 1867–present | publisher = Pearson Education Canada | edition = 4 | date = August 25, 2005 | volume = 2 | isbn = 978-0321270092 | url-access = registration | url = https://archive.org/details/historyofcanadia0004conr }}</ref> Just as the bison disappeared (the last Canadian hunt was in 1879), [[Lieutenant Governor (Canada)|Lieutenant-Governor]] [[Edgar Dewdney]] cut rations to indigenous people in an attempt to reduce government costs. Between 1880 and 1885, approximately 3,000 Indigenous people starved to death in the [[North-Western Territory]]/[[Northwest Territories]].<ref name="finkelconrad"/>
 
[[File:Poundmaker.png|thumb|left|upright|[[Pîhtokahanapiwiyin]] (Poundmaker)]]
 
Offended by the concepts of the treaties, Cree chiefs resisted them. [[Big Bear]] refused to sign [[Treaty 6]] until starvation among his people forced his hand in 1882.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> His attempts to unite Indigenous nations made progress. In 1884 the Métis (including the [[Anglo-Métis]]) asked [[Louis Riel]] to return from the [[United States]], where he had fled after the [[Red River Rebellion]], to appeal to the government on their behalf. The government gave a vague response. In March 1885, Riel, [[Gabriel Dumont (Métis leader)|Gabriel Dumont]], [[Honoré Jackson]] (a.k.a. Will Jackson), [[Crowfoot]], Chief of the [[Blackfoot Confederacy|Blackfoot]] First Nation and Chief [[Poundmaker]], who after the 1876 negotiations of [[Treaty 6]] split off to form his band.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=5783|work=1881–1890 (Volume XI) |title=Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker), Plains Cree chief|publisher=University of Toronto/Université Laval|access-date=October 9, 2009}}</ref> Together, they set up the [[Provisional Government of Saskatchewan]], believing that they could influence the federal government in the same way as they had in 1869.<ref>{{cite web|author=Boulton, Charles A. |year=1886 |title=Reminiscences of the North-West Rebellions |location=Toronto. |url=http://wsb.datapro.net/rebellions/index.html |access-date=October 9, 2009 |author-link=Charles Arkoll Boulton |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091123015618/http://wsb.datapro.net/rebellions/index.html |archive-date=November 23, 2009 }}</ref> The [[North-West Rebellion]] of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful [[Rebellion|uprising]] by the [[Métis people (Canada)|Métis]] people of the [[District of Saskatchewan]] under [[Louis Riel]] against the Dominion of [[Canada]], which they believed had failed to address their concerns for the survival of their people.<ref>{{cite web
| publisher = Canadiana.org 2001–2005 (Formerly Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions)
| title =Canada in the Making: The Riel Rebellions
| url =http://www.canadiana.org/citm/specifique/rielreb_e.html
| access-date = October 6, 2007 }}</ref> In 1884, 2,000 Cree from reserves met near [[Battleford, Saskatchewan|Battleford]] to organise into a large, cohesive resistance. Discouraged by the lack of government response but encouraged by the efforts of the Métis at [[North-West Rebellion|armed rebellion]], [[Wandering Spirit (Cree leader)|Wandering Spirit]] and other young militant Cree attacked the small town of [[Frog Lake Massacre|Frog Lake]], killing Thomas Quinn, the hated [[Indian Agent (Canada)|Indian Agent]] and eight others.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> Although Big Bear actively opposed the attacks, he was charged and tried for treason and sentenced to three years in prison. After the [[Red River Rebellion]] of 1869–1870, Métis moved from [[Manitoba]] to the District of [[Saskatchewan]], where they founded a settlement at [[Batoche, Saskatchewan|Batoche]] on the [[South Saskatchewan River]].<ref>{{Cite book| title = Riel: a life of revolution| author = Siggins, Maggie | year = 1994 | publisher = [[HarperCollins]], Toronto | isbn = 0-00-215792-6| author-link = Maggie Siggins}}</ref>
[[File:Mik'maq at Province House, Halifax,NS 1879.png|thumb|[[Mi'kmaq]] Grand Chief [[Jacques-Pierre Peminuit Paul]] (3rd from left with beard) meets Governor General of Canada, [[John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll|Marquess of Lorne]], Red Chamber, [[Province House (Nova Scotia)|Province House]], Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1879]]
In Manitoba settlers from [[Ontario]] began to arrive. They pushed for land to be allotted in the square concession system of [[English Canada]], rather than the [[Seigneurial system of New France|seigneurial system]] of strips reaching back from a river which the Métis were familiar with in their [[French-Canadian]] culture. The buffalo were being hunted to extinction by the [[Hudson's Bay Company]] and other hunters, as for generations the Métis had depended on them as a chief source of food.
 
====Colonization and assimilation====
{{Main|Canadian Indian residential school system|Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission}}
[[File:Stpauls-middlechurch-man.jpg|thumb|upright|St. Paul's Indian Industrial School, Manitoba, 1901]]
The history of colonization is complex, varied according to the time and place. France and Britain were the main colonial powers involved, though the United States also began to extend its territory at the expense of indigenous people as well.
 
From the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged First Nations to [[Cultural imperialism|assimilate]] into the European-based culture, referred to as "[[Canadian culture]]". The assumption was that this was the "correct" culture because the Canadians of European descent saw themselves as dominant, and technologically, politically and culturally superior.<ref name="RoyalCom-sg3">{{Cite journal
|title=Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Stage Three: Displacement and Assimilation
|volume=1 part 1 chapter 6
|journal=[[Indian and Northern Affairs Canada]]
|publisher=Government of Canada
|date=August 26, 1991
|url=http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ch/rcap/sg/sgm6_e.html
|archive-url=http://webarchive.bac-lac.gc.ca:8080/wayback/20071124124236/http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ch/rcap/sg/sgm6_e.html
|url-status=dead
|archive-date=November 24, 2007
|access-date=October 9, 2009
}}
</ref> There was resistance against this assimilation and many businesses denied European practices. The Tecumseh Wigwam of Toronto, for example, did not adhere to the widely practiced Lord's Day observance, making it a popular spot, especially on Sundays.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Peppiatt|first1=Liam|title=Chapter 12: The Tecumseh Wigwam |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160821091733/http://www.landmarksoftoronto.com/the-tecumseh-wigwam/ |url=http://www.landmarksoftoronto.com/the-tecumseh-wigwam/ |archive-date=August 21, 2016 |website=Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto Revisited}}</ref> These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
 
Founded in the 19th century, the [[Canadian Indian residential school system]] was intended to force the assimilation of Aboriginal and First Nations people into European-Canadian society.<ref>{{cite web|last=Dolha |first=Lloyd |url=http://www.firstnationsdrum.com/education/Default.htm |title=Alberni School Victim Speaks Out |work=First Nations drum |access-date=October 9, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100419141730/http://www.firstnationsdrum.com/education/Default.htm |archive-date=April 19, 2010 }}</ref> The purpose of the schools, which separated children from their families, has been described by commentators as "killing the Indian in the child."<ref name=chronology>{{cite web|title=Residential Schools – A Chronology |publisher=Assembly of First Nations |url=http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=2586 |access-date=January 19, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090201154953/http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=2586 |archive-date=February 1, 2009 }}
</ref><ref>{{cite web
|title=Canada apologizes for killing the 'Indian in the child' (Roundup)
|work=Americas News
|publisher=Deutsche Presse-Agentur
|date=June 11, 2008
|url=http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/americas/news/article_1410655.php
|archive-url=https://archive.today/20130129002544/http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/americas/news/article_1410655.php
|url-status=dead
|archive-date=January 29, 2013
|access-date=October 9, 2009
}}
</ref>
 
[[File:Buying provisions for Xmas.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Buying provisions, [[Hudson's Bay Company|Hudson's Bay]] territory, 1870s]]
Funded under the ''[[Indian Act]]'' by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, a branch of the federal government, the schools were run by churches of various denominations – about 60% by Roman Catholics, and 30% by the [[Anglican Church of Canada]] and the [[United Church of Canada]], along with its pre-1925 predecessors, [[Presbyterian Church in Canada|Presbyterian]], [[Congregational church|Congregationalist]] and [[Methodism|Methodist]] churches.
 
The attempt to [[Forced assimilation|force assimilation]] involved punishing children for speaking their own languages or practicing their own faiths, leading to allegations in the 20th century of [[cultural genocide]] and [[ethnocide]]. There was widespread physical and [[sexual abuse]]. Overcrowding, poor sanitation, and a lack of medical care led to high rates of [[tuberculosis]], and death rates of up to 69%.<ref>{{cite web | last1 = Curry | first1 = Bill | last2 = Howlett | first2 = Karen | title = Natives died in droves as Ottawa ignored warnings Tuberculosis took the lives of students at residential schools for at least 40 years | work = [[The Globe and Mail|Globe and Mail]] | date = April 24, 2007 | url = http://www.heyokamagazine.com/HEYOKA.8.GlobeAndMail.1.htm | format = Digitised online by Heyoka Magazine | access-date = October 9, 2009 | url-status = dead | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20090413064440/http://www.heyokamagazine.com/HEYOKA.8.GlobeAndMail.1.htm | archive-date = April 13, 2009 | df = mdy-all }}
</ref> Details of the mistreatment of students had been published numerous times throughout the 20th century, but following the closure of the schools in the 1960s, the work of indigenous activists and historians led to a change in the public perception of the residential school system, as well as official government apologies, and a (controversial) legal settlement.<ref>{{Cite journal|url=http://www.umanitoba.ca/colleges/st_pauls/ccha/Back%20Issues/CCHA1995/Carney.pdf|title=Robert CARNEY, Aboriginal Residential Schools Before Confederation: The Early Experience |publisher= CCHA, Historical Studies, 61|year=1995 |volume=13–40 |access-date=October 13, 2007}}</ref>
 
Colonization had a significant impact on First Nations diet and health. According to the historian Mary-Ellen Kelm, "inadequate reserve allocations, restrictions on the food fishery, overhunting, and over-trapping" alienated First Nations from their traditional way of life, which undermined their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health.<ref>Kelm, Mary-Ellen (1998). Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia 1900–50. Vancouver: UBC Press, p. 37.</ref>
 
===20th century===
[[File:Frances Densmore recording Mountain Chief2.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Ethnomusicologist [[Frances Densmore]] recording [[Blackfoot Confederacy|Blackfoot]] chief [[Mountain Chief]] (1916)]]
As Canadian ideas of [[Progressivism|progress]] evolved around the start of the 20th century, the federal Indian policy was directed at removing Indigenous people from their communal lands and encouraging assimilation.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> Amendments to the ''Indian Act'' in 1905 and 1911 made it easier for the government to expropriate reserve lands from First Nations.<ref>{{Cite web|title=The Indian Act|url=https://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/the_indian_act/|access-date=2021-01-20|website=indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|last=Joseph|first=Bob|title=21 Things You May Not Have Known About The Indian Act|url=https://www.ictinc.ca/blog/21-things-you-may-not-have-known-about-the-indian-act-|access-date=2021-01-20|website=www.ictinc.ca}}</ref> The government sold nearly half of the Blackfoot reserve in Alberta to settlers.{{Citation needed|date=February 2012}}
 
When the Kainai (Blood) Nation refused to accept the sale of their lands in 1916 and 1917, the Department of Indian Affairs held back funding necessary for farming until they relented.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> In British Columbia, the [[McKenna–McBride Royal Commission]] was created in 1912 to settle disputes over reserve lands in the province. The claims of Indigenous people were ignored, and the commission allocated new, less valuable lands (reserves) for First Nations.<ref name="finkelconrad"/>
 
Those nations who managed to maintain their ownership of good lands often farmed successfully. Indigenous people living near the [[Cowichan River|Cowichan]] and [[Fraser River|Fraser]] rivers, and those from Saskatchewan managed to produce good harvests.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> Since 1881, those First Nations people living in the prairie provinces required permits from Indian Agents to sell any of their produce. Later the government created a pass system in the old Northwest Territories that required indigenous people to seek written permission from an Indian Agent before leaving their reserves for any length of time.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> Indigenous people regularly defied those laws, as well as bans on [[Sun Dance]]s and potlatches, in an attempt to practice their culture.<ref>{{cite web
| title = An historical overview
| work = The Justice System and Aboriginal People The Aboriginal Justice Implementation Commission
| publisher = Manitoba Government
| url = http://www.ajic.mb.ca/volumel/chapter3.html#1
| access-date =September 11, 2009 }}
</ref>
 
The [[wikisource:Constitution Act, 1930 (annotated)|''1930 Constitution Act'']] or [[Natural Resources Acts]] was part of a shift acknowledging [[indigenous rights]]. It enabled provincial control of [[Crown land]] and allowed Provincial laws regulating game to apply to Indians, but it also ensured that "Indians shall have the right&nbsp;... of hunting, trapping and fishing game and fish for food at all seasons of the year on all unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to which the said Indians may have a right of access."<ref>''Statutes of Great Britain (1930)'', 20–21 [[George V]], chapter 26.</ref>
 
===First and Second World Wars===
[[File:Aboriginal War Veterans monument.JPG|thumb|upright|Aboriginal War Veterans monument]]
More than 6,000 First Nations, Inuit and Métis served with [[British Armed Forces|British forces]] during [[World War I|First World War]] and [[World War II|Second World War]]. A generation of young native men fought on the battlefields of Europe during the Great War and approximately 300 of them died there.{{Cn|date=April 2021}} When Canada declared war on [[Nazi Germany|Germany]] on September 10, 1939, the native community quickly responded to volunteer. Four years later, in May 1943, the government declared that, as [[British subject]]s, all able Indian men of military age could be called up for training and service in Canada or overseas.
 
===Late 20th century===
Following the end of the Second World War, laws concerning First Nations in Canada began to change, albeit slowly. The federal prohibition of potlatch and Sun Dance ceremonies ended in 1951. Provincial governments began to accept the right of Indigenous people to vote. In June 1956, section 9 of the ''[[Canadian Citizenship Act 1946|Citizenship Act]]'' was amended to grant formal citizenship to Status Indians and Inuit, retroactively as of January 1947.
 
In 1960, First Nations people received the right to vote in federal elections without forfeiting their Indian status. By comparison, Native Americans in the United States had been allowed to vote since the 1920s.<ref>{{cite web
| last = Kinnear
| first = Michael
| title = The Effect of Expansion of the Franchise on Turnout
| work = Electoral Insight
| publisher = Elections Canada
| date = November 2003
| url = http://www.elections.ca/res/eim/article_search/article.asp?id=28&lang=e&frmPageSize=
| access-date =April 29, 2014 }}
</ref>
 
====1969 White Paper====
 
In his [[1969 White Paper]], then-[[Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (Canada)|Minister of Indian Affairs]], [[Jean Chrétien]], proposed the abolition of the ''Indian Act'' of Canada, the rejection of [[Aboriginal land claim]]s, and the assimilation of First Nations people into the Canadian population with the status of "other ethnic minorities" rather than as a distinct group.<ref name="two">{{cite web|url=http://www.afn.ca/misc/AFN-AGA-2009.pdf |title=Assembly of First Nations Annual Report |work=AFN Executive Committee Reports |publisher=Assembly of First Nations |date=2008–2009 |access-date=October 6, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091102145955/http://www.afn.ca/misc/AFN-AGA-2009.pdf |archive-date=November 2, 2009 }}</ref>
 
[[Harold Cardinal]] and the Indian Chiefs of Alberta responded with a document entitled "Citizens Plus" but commonly known as the "Red Paper". In it, they explained Status Indians' widespread opposition to Chrétien's proposal. [[Prime Minister of Canada|Prime Minister]] [[Pierre Trudeau]] and the [[Liberal Party of Canada|Liberals]] began to back away from the 1969 White Paper, particularly after the [[Calder v. British Columbia (Attorney General)|Calder case]] decision in 1973.<ref name="ndp-ear">{{cite news |last1=Tester |first1=Frank James |last2=McNicoll|first2=Paule McNicoll |author3=Jessie Forsyth |title=With an ear to the ground: The CCF/NDP and Aboriginal policy in Canada, 1926–1993 |work=Journal of Canadian Studies |publisher=CBS Interactive Inc |date=Spring 1999|url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3683/is_199904/ai_n8843392/pg_9 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070706013520/http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3683/is_199904/ai_n8843392/pg_9 |url-status=dead |archive-date=2007-07-06 |access-date=October 9, 2009}}</ref> After the Canadian Supreme Court recognized that indigenous rights and treaty rights were not extinguished, a process was begun to resolve land claims and treaty rights and is ongoing today.
 
====Health transfer policy====
{{Main|Indian Health Transfer Policy (Canada)}}
In 1970, severe [[mercury poisoning]], called [[Ontario Minamata disease]], was discovered among [[Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation]] and [[Wabaseemoong Independent Nations]] people, who lived near [[Dryden, Ontario]]. There was extensive mercury pollution caused by Dryden Chemicals Company's waste water effluent in the [[Wabigoon River|Wabigoon]]-[[English River (Ontario)|English River]] system.<ref name="itri">{{cite journal|author1=D'ltri, P. A. |author2=D'ltri, F. M. | title=Mercury contamination: A human tragedy | journal=Environmental Management | volume=2 | issue=1 | pages=3–16 |date=January 1978 | doi=10.1007/BF01866442|bibcode=1978EnMan...2....3D |s2cid=153666705 }}</ref><ref name="mcdonald">{{cite book|author=McDonald, A. | chapter=Indigenous peoples' vulnerabilities exposed: Lessons learned from Canada's Minamata incident: An Environmental analysis based on the case study of methyl-mercury pollution in northwestern Ontario, Canada | title=JACS Conference 2007 | publisher=Japanese Association for Canadian Studies | chapter-url=http://jacs.jp/AnnualConf2007/JACS2007/JACS2007resume/20070923mcdonald-e.pdf | access-date=December 14, 2007|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20071014080420/http://www.jacs.jp/AnnualConf2007/JACS2007/JACS2007resume/20070923mcdonald-e.pdf <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archive-date = October 14, 2007}}</ref> Because local fish were no longer safe to eat, the Ontario provincial government closed the commercial fisheries run by the First Nation people and ordered them to stop eating local fish. Previously it had made up the majority of their diet.<ref>{{cite news
| title = Mercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy Narrows
| publisher = CBC TV
| date = November 1, 1970
| url = http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-70-1178-6450/disasters_tragedies/grassy_narrows_mercury_pollution/clip1
| access-date =August 31, 2009 }}
</ref> In addition to the acute mercury poisoning in [[northwestern Ontario]], [[Aamjiwnaang First Nation]] people near [[Sarnia]], Ontario, experienced a wide range of chemical effects, including severe mercury poisoning. They suffered low birth rates, skewed birth-gender ratio, and health effects among the population.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Gilbertson |first1=Michael |author2=Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group |title=Injury to Health: a forensic audit of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1972 to 2005) with special reference to congenital Minamata disease |publisher=University of Stirling |year=2007 |url=https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/1893/249/3/M-Gilbertson-PhD-Master-Thesis.pdf |access-date=September 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110718083716/https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/1893/249/3/M-Gilbertson-PhD-Master-Thesis.pdf |archive-date=July 18, 2011 }}
</ref><ref>{{cite web
| title = Rachel's environment and Health weekly
| work = From: Globe and Mail (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) (pg. A4), Apr. 11, 2007 The Mystery of the missing boys; Chemical pollutants flagged in new study as possible factor in skewed sex ratio By Martin Mittelstaedt, Environment Reporter
| url = http://www.ecomall.com/activism/rachel232.htm
| access-date = September 11, 2009}}
</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Mercury Study Report to Congress Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds |work=EPA-452/R-97-007 |publisher=United States Environmental Protection Agency |date=December 1997 |url=http://www.epa.gov/ttncaaa1/t3/reports/volume5.pdf |access-date=September 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111202224416/http://www.epa.gov/ttncaaa1/t3/reports/volume5.pdf |archive-date=December 2, 2011 }}
</ref> This led to legislation and eventually the [[Indian Health Transfer Policy (Canada)|Indian Health Transfer Policy]] that provided a framework for the assumption of control of health services by First Nations people, and set forth a developmental approach to transfer centred on the concept of self-determination in health.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/alt_formats/fnihb-dgspni/pdf/pubs/agree-accord/1999_finance_integr-eng.pdf |archive-url=https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20130111060520/http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/alt_formats/fnihb-dgspni/pdf/pubs/agree-accord/1999_finance_integr-eng.pdf |url-status=dead |archive-date=January 11, 2013 |title=Financing a First Nations and Inuit Integrated Health System |work=Health Canada |publisher=Government of Canada |access-date=October 9, 2009 }}</ref> Through this process, the decision to enter into transfer discussions with [[Health Canada]] rests with each community. Once involved in transfer, communities are able to take control of health programme responsibilities at a pace determined by their individual circumstances and health management capabilities.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/pubs/finance/index-eng.php#agree-accord |title=Funding – Reports and Publications |work=Health Canada|publisher=Government of Canada|access-date=October 9, 2009|date=July 2005 }}</ref>
 
The capacity, experience and relationships developed by First Nations as a result of health transfer was a factor that assisted the creation of the [[First Nations Health Authority]] in British Columbia.
 
====Elijah Harper and the Meech Lake Accord====
{{Main|Meech Lake Accord}}
In 1981, [[Elijah Harper]], a Cree from [[Red Sucker Lake First Nation|Red Sucker Lake]], [[Manitoba]], became the first "Treaty Indian" in Manitoba to be elected as a [[Member of the Legislative Assembly|member]] of the [[Legislative Assembly of Manitoba]]. In 1990, Harper achieved national fame by holding an eagle feather as he refused to accept the [[Meech Lake Accord]], a [[constitutional amendment]] package negotiated to gain Quebec's acceptance of the ''[[Constitution Act, 1982]]'', but also one that did not address any First Nations grievances. The accord was negotiated in 1987 without the input of Canada's [[Indigenous peoples|Aboriginal peoples]].<ref>{{Cite book
| last1 = Rose
| first1 = Jürgen
| first2 = Johannes Ch |last2=Traut |author3=George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
| title = Federalism and: perspectives for the transformation process in Eastern and Central Europe Volume 2 of George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
| publisher = LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster
| year = 2001
| page = 151
| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=FtxtDf418LsC&q=aboriginal&pg=PA151
| isbn = 9783825851569}}
</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Man who died at scrapyard was Elijah Harper's brother |publisher=CBC News |date=March 25, 2009 |url=https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/man-who-died-at-scrapyard-was-elijah-harper-s-brother-1.791875 |access-date=September 11, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090328144756/https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/man-who-died-at-scrapyard-was-elijah-harper-s-brother-1.791875 |archive-date=March 28, 2009 }}
</ref><ref>{{cite web
|last=Parkinson
|first=Rhonda
|title=The Meech Lake Accord
|work=Maple Leaf Web
|publisher=Department of Political Science, University of Lethbridge
|date=November 2006
|url=http://www.rhondaparkinson.com/meech-lake-accord.htm
|access-date=September 11, 2009
|url-status=dead
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090312070451/http://www.rhondaparkinson.com/meech-lake-accord.htm
|archive-date=March 12, 2009
}}
</ref> The third, final constitutional conference on Aboriginal peoples was also unsuccessful. The Manitoba assembly was required to unanimously consent to a motion allowing it to hold a vote on the accord, because of a procedural rule. Twelve days before the ratification deadline for the Accord, Harper began a [[filibuster]] that prevented the assembly from ratifying the accord. Because Meech Lake failed in Manitoba, the proposed constitutional amendment failed.<ref>{{Cite book
| last = Cohen
| first = Andrew
| title = A Deal Undone: The Making and Breaking of the Meech Lake Accord
| publisher = Douglas & McIntyre
| year = 1990
| location = Vancouver/Toronto
| isbn =0-88894-704-6 }}
</ref> Harper also opposed the [[Charlottetown Accord]] in 1992, even though [[Assembly of First Nations]] Chief [[Ovide Mercredi]] supported it.<ref name="two"/>
 
====Women's status and Bill C-31====
{{Main|Indian Act}}
According to the ''Indian Act'', [[status Indian]] women who married men who were not status Indians lost their [[Indian Register|treaty status]], and their children would not get status. However, in the reverse situation, if a status Indian man married a woman who was not a status Indian, the man would keep his status and his children would also receive treaty status. In the 1970s, the Indian Rights for Indian Women and [[Native Women's Association of Canada]] groups campaigned against this policy because it discriminated against women and failed to fulfill treaty promises.<ref name="finkelconrad"/> They successfully convinced the federal government to change the section of the act with the adoption of Bill C-31 on June 28, 1985. Women who had lost their status and children who had been excluded were then able to register and gain official Indian status. Despite these changes, status Indian women who married men who were not status Indians could pass their status on only one generation: their children would gain status, but (without a marriage to a full-status Indian) their grandchildren would not. A status Indian man who married a woman who was not a status Indian retained status as did his children, but his wife did not gain status, nor did his grandchildren.
 
Bill C-31 also gave elected bands the power to regulate who was allowed to reside on their reserves and to control development on their reserves. It abolished the concept of "[[Gradual Civilization Act|enfranchisement]]" by which First Nations people could gain certain rights by renouncing their Indian status.<ref>{{cite web
|last = Laurin
|first = I
|title = First Nations, Bill C-31, Indian Act
|work = Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
|date = September 1995
|url = http://www.johnco.com/nativel/bill_c31.html
|access-date = October 9, 2009
|url-status = dead
|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20090730192508/http://www.johnco.com/nativel/bill_c31.html
|archive-date = July 30, 2009
|df = mdy-all
}}
</ref>
 
====Erasmus–Dussault commission====
{{Main|Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples}}
In 1991, Prime Minister [[Brian Mulroney]] created the [[Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples]] chaired by René Dussault and [[Georges Erasmus]]. Their 1996 report proposed the creation of a government for (and by) the First Nations that would be responsible within its own jurisdiction, and with which the federal government would speak on a "Nation-to-Nation" basis.<ref name="Royal"/> This proposal offered a far different way of doing politics than the traditional policy of assigning First Nations matters under the jurisdiction of the Indian and Northern Affairs, managed by one minister of the federal cabinet. The report also recommended providing the governments of the First Nations with up to [[Canadian dollar|$]]2 billion every year until 2010, in order to reduce the economic gap between the First Nations and the rest of the Canadian citizenry.<ref name="Royal"/> The money would represent an increase of at least 50% to the budget of Indian and Northern Affairs.<ref name="Royal"/> The report engaged First Nations leaders to think of ways to cope with the challenging issues their people were facing, so the First Nations could take their destiny into their own hands.<ref name="Royal">{{cite web|last1=Dussault |first1=René |last2=Erasmus|first2=George |title=The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953–55 Relocation |work=Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples |publisher=Canadian Government Publishing |year=1994 |url=http://www.fedpubs.com/subject/aborig/arctic_reloc.htm |access-date=October 9, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091001232453/http://www.fedpubs.com/subject/aborig/arctic_reloc.htm |archive-date=October 1, 2009 }}
</ref>
 
The federal government, then headed by Jean Chrétien, responded to the report a year later by officially presenting its apologies for the forced acculturation the federal government had imposed on the First Nations, and by offering an "initial" provision of $350 million.<ref name="Royal"/>
 
In the spirit of the Eramus–Dussault commission, tripartite (federal, provincial, and First Nations) accords have been signed since the report was issued. Several political crises between different provincial governments and different bands of the First Nations also occurred in the late 20th century, notably the [[Oka Crisis]], [[Ipperwash Crisis]], [[Burnt Church Crisis]], and the [[Gustafsen Lake standoff]].<ref name="Royal"/>
 
===Early 21st century===
{{See also|Grand River land dispute|Kelowna Accord}}
In 2001, the [[Quebec government]], the federal government, and the Cree Nation signed "[[Agreement Respecting a New Relationship Between the Cree Nation and the Government of Quebec|La Paix des Braves]]" (''The Peace of the Braves'', a reference to the 1701 peace treaty between the French and the Iroquois League). The agreement allowed [[Hydro-Québec]] to exploit the province's [[hydroelectric]] resources in exchange for an allocation of $3.5 billion to be given to the government of the Cree Nation. Later, the Inuit of [[Nord-du-Québec|northern Quebec]] ([[Nunavik]]) joined in the agreement.
[[File: The Defense of Cree Rights.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Defence of Cree rights]]
 
In 2005, the leaders of the First Nations, various provincial governments, and the federal government produced an agreement called the [[Kelowna Accord]], which would have yielded $5 billion over 10 years, but the new federal government of [[Stephen Harper]] (2006) did not follow through on the working paper.
First Nations, along with the Métis and the Inuit, have claimed to receive inadequate funding for education, and allege their rights have been overlooked. [[James Bartleman]], [[Lieutenant Governor of Ontario]] from 2002 to 2007, listed the encouragement of indigenous young people as one of his key priorities. During his term, he launched initiatives to promote literacy and bridge-building. Bartleman was the first Aboriginal person to be lieutenant governor in Ontario.
 
In 2006, 76 First Nations communities had [[boil-water advisory]] conditions.<ref>{{cite news|title=Water still a problem on 76 reserves |url=http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/02/20/aboriginal-water060220.html |publisher=[[Canadian Broadcasting Corporation]] |date=February 20, 2006 |access-date=July 1, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070813005820/http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/02/20/aboriginal-water060220.html |archive-date=August 13, 2007 }}</ref>
In late 2005, the [[Water crisis|drinking water crisis]] of the [[Kashechewan First Nation]] received national [[media of Canada|media]] attention when ''[[E. coli]]'' was discovered in their [[water supply system]], following two years of living under a boil-water advisory. The [[drinking water]] was supplied by a new [[Water treatment|treatment plant]] built in March 1998. The cause of the tainted water was a plugged chlorine injector that was not discovered by local operators, who were not qualified to be running the treatment plant. When officials arrived and fixed the problem, [[chlorine]] levels were around 1.7&nbsp;[[Gram per litre|mg/l]], which was blamed for [[Skin disease|skin disorders]] such as [[impetigo]] and [[scabies]]. An investigation led by [[Health Canada]] revealed that skin disorders were likely due to living in squalor. The evacuation of Kashechewan was largely viewed by Canadians as a cry for help for other underlying social and economic issues that Aboriginal people in Canada face.
 
On June 29, 2007, Canadian Aboriginal groups held countrywide protests aimed at ending First Nations poverty, dubbed the [[Aboriginal Day of Action]]. The demonstrations were largely peaceful, although groups disrupted transportation with blockades or bonfires; a stretch of the [[Highway 401 (Ontario)|Highway 401]] was shut down, as was the [[Canadian National Railway]]'s line between [[Toronto]] and Montreal.<ref>{{cite news
|last=Sibonney
|first=Claire
|title=Poverty the focus of Canada-wide native protests
|url=http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=bd61f2dd-0a80-4fc9-af3f-01698fb6e099&k=90824
|agency=Reuters
|date=June 29, 2007
|access-date=July 1, 2007
|url-status=dead
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071016172727/http://canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=bd61f2dd-0a80-4fc9-af3f-01698fb6e099&k=90824
|archive-date=October 16, 2007
}}</ref>
 
The [[Idle No More]] [[Social movement|protest movement]] originated among the Aboriginals in Canada and their non-Aboriginal supporters in Canada, and to a lesser extent, internationally. It consisted of a number of political actions worldwide, inspired in part by the [[hunger strike]] of [[Attawapiskat First Nation]] Chief [[Theresa Spence]]<ref name=Raveena>{{cite news|last=Aulakh|first=Raveena|title=Chief Theresa Spence's hunger strike has full backing of Attawapiskat residents|url=https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/politics/article/1306869--chief-theresa-spence-s-hunger-strike-has-full-backing-of-attawapiskat-residents|work=theStar.com|access-date=December 27, 2012|location=Toronto|date=December 25, 2012}}</ref> and further coordinated via [[social media]]. A reaction to alleged abuses of indigenous [[treaty rights]] by the federal government, the movement took particular issue with the [[omnibus bill]] Bill C-45.<ref>[http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&DocId=5942521&File=4 Bill C-45] was part of the [[41st Canadian Parliament#Omnibus bills|41st Canadian Parliament Omnibus bills]] and was a "second Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on March 29, 2012, and other measures." Bill C-45 was assented to on December 14, 2012.</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=History of Idle No More |date=December 23, 2012 |url=http://idlenomore1.blogspot.ca/p/background-on-idle-no-more.html |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130113101803/http://idlenomore1.blogspot.ca/p/background-on-idle-no-more.html |archive-date=January 13, 2013 }}</ref>
 
==Canadian Crown and First Nations relations==
{{Main|The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada}}
[[File:David Laird explaining Treaty 8 Fort Vermilion 1899 - NA-949-34.jpg|thumb|upright|[[David Laird]] explaining<br /> terms of Treaty 8, [[Fort Vermilion]], 1899]]
The relationship between the Canadian Crown and the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples stretches back to the [[Timeline of colonization of North America|first interactions]] between European colonialists and North American indigenous people. Over centuries of interaction, [[Treaty|treaties]] were established, and First Nations have, like the [[Māori people|Māori]] and the [[Treaty of Waitangi]] in [[New Zealand]], come to generally view these agreements as being between them and the Crown of Canada, and not the ever-changing governments.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.thestar.com/comment/article/220171|last=Mainville|first= Sara|work=Toronto Star|title=Lawsuits, treaty rights and the sacred balance|date= June 1, 2007|access-date=October 9, 2009}}</ref>
 
The associations exist between the Aboriginal peoples and the reigning [[Title and style of the Canadian monarch|monarch of Canada]]; as was stated in the proposed First Nations{{spaced ndash}}Federal Crown Political Accord: "cooperation will be a cornerstone for partnership between Canada and First Nations, wherein Canada is the short-form reference to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada".<ref name=FN /> These relations are governed by the established treaties; the [[Supreme Court of Canada|Supreme Court]] stated that treaties "served to reconcile pre-existing Aboriginal sovereignty with assumed Crown sovereignty, and to define Aboriginal rights",<ref name=FN>{{cite web|url=http://www.afn.ca/cmslib/general/PolAcc.pdf |title=A First Nations – Federal Crown Political Accord on the Recognition and Implementation of First Nation Governments |publisher=Assembly of First Nations and Government of Canada |access-date=October 9, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100816041503/http://www.afn.ca/cmslib/general/PolAcc.pdf |archive-date=August 16, 2010 }}</ref> and the First Nations saw these agreements as meant to last "as long as the sun shines, grass grows and rivers flow".
 
===Taxation===
Although taxes are not specifically addressed in the written terms of any treaties, assurances regarding taxation were clearly offered when at least some treaties were negotiated.<ref>See Richard H. Bartlett, ''Indians and Taxation in Canada'', 3d ed.(Saskatoon: Native Law Centre, 1992) pp. 1–14.</ref>
 
The various statutory exemptions from taxation are established under the ''[[Indian Act]]'', which reads:
 
{{quote|{{unbulleted list
|87(1). Notwithstanding any other Act of Parliament or any Act of the legislature of a province ... the following property is exempt from taxation{{unbulleted list|item_style=margin-left:4em
|(a) the interest of an Indian or a band in reserve lands or surrendered lands; and
|(b) the personal property of an Indian or a band situated on a reserve.}}
|87(2). No Indian or band is subject to taxation in respect of the ownership, occupation, possession or use of any property mentioned in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) or is otherwise subject to taxation in respect of any such property.<ref>R.S.C. 1985, c. I-5 ''[Indian Act]''. Web: {{cite web|url=http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/I-5/ |title=Archived copy |access-date=February 7, 2013 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130216033916/http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/I-5/ |archive-date=February 16, 2013 }}</ref>}}}}
 
Many scholars <ref>Joel Oliphant, "Taxation and Treaty Rights: Benoit v. Canada's Historical Context and Impact" (2003) 29 Man. L.J. 343.</ref><ref>John Borrows, "The Supreme Court, Citizenship and the Canadian Community: the Judgments of Justice La Forest" in Rebecca Johnson et al., eds., Gérard V. La Forest at the Supreme Court of Canada 1985–1997 (Ottawa: Supreme Court of Canada Historical Society, 2000) 243 at 261–64.</ref> believe these exemptions serve to oppress Aboriginal peoples by allowing conservative-minded courts to impart their own (sometimes discriminatory) views into the Aboriginal taxation jurisprudence. As one professor wrote:
 
{{quote|[Because] income-generating activity in the "commercial mainstream" contrasts with income-generating activity that is "intimately connected to" the reserve ... [the] Tax Court of Canada implie[s] that the "traditional way of life" of Aboriginal peoples d[oes] not embrace "economic aspects" ... beyond a subsistence economy. [footnotes omitted] <ref>{{cite journal|last=MacIntosh|first=Constance|title=From Judging Culture to Taxing 'Indians': Tracing the Legal Discourse of the 'Indian Mode of Life'|journal=Osgoode Hall Law Journal|date=27 June 2009|volume=47|page=339|ssrn=2094598}}</ref>}}
 
===Political organization===
{{Main|First Nations government (Canada)|List of First Nations governments}}
Self-government has given chiefs and their councils powers which combine those of a province, school board, health board and municipality. Councils are also largely self-regulating regarding utilities, environmental protection, natural resources, building codes, etc. There is concern that this wide-ranging authority, [[Separation of powers|concentrated in a single council]], might be a cause of the dysfunctional governments experienced by many First Nations.<ref>{{cite web
| last = Graham
| first = John
| access-date = July 17, 2011}}</ref>
 
[[File:Ovide Mercredi.JPG|thumb|upright|alt="Ovide Mercrediமுதல் speakingகுடிமக்களின் to the media"|[[Ovide Mercredi]], former national chief of the [[Assembly of First Nations]]மன்றம்]]
 
கனடா பூர்வ குடிமக்களின் முதல் மன்றத்தின் நோக்கம், பூர்வ குடிகளின் உரிமைகள் காத்தல், வழிபாட்டு உரிமை, வழிபாடு மற்றும் சடங்கு செய்யும் உரிமைகளை பாதுகாத்தல் மற்றும் தங்களை கனடாவின் முதல் குடிமக்கள் என்ற உரிமை காத்தல் ஆகும்.
The [[Assembly of First Nations]] (AFN) is a body of First Nations leaders in Canada. The aims of the organization are to protect the rights, treaty obligations, ceremonies, and claims of citizens of the First Nations in Canada.
 
After the failures of the League of Indians in Canada in the [[interwar period]] and the North American Indian Brotherhood in two decades following the Second World War, the Aboriginal peoples of Canada organised themselves once again in the early 1960s. The National Indian Council was created in 1961 to represent Indigenous people, including treaty/status Indians, non-status people, the Métis people, though not the Inuit.<ref name="afnstory">{{cite web|title=Assembly of First Nations – The Story |url=http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=59 |access-date=October 9, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090802164225/http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=59 |archive-date=August 2, 2009 }}</ref> This organization collapsed in 1968 as the three groups failed to act as one, so the non-status and Métis groups formed the Native Council of Canada and treaty/status groups formed the National Indian Brotherhood (NIB), an [[Umbrella organization|umbrella group]] for provincial and territorial First Nations organizations.
 
==Culture==
{{See also|Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of North America|Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
[[National Indigenous Peoples Day]], formerly ''National Aboriginal Day'', June 21, recognizes the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples of Canada.<ref name=history>{{cite web|url=http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/R32-179-2000E.pdf|title=National Aboriginal Day History|work=Indian and Northern Affairs Canada | access-date = October 18, 2009}}</ref> There are currently over 600 recognized [[List of First Nations peoples|First Nations governments or bands]] encompassing 1,172,790 <sup>2006</sup> people spread across Canada with distinctive Aboriginal cultures, languages, art, and music.<ref name="one"/><ref name="Aboriginal Identity 2006 Census">{{cite web
| title = Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data
| work = [[Canada 2006 Census]] data products
| publisher = Statistics Canada, Government of Canada
| date = June 12, 2008
| url = http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/topics/RetrieveProductTable.cfm?ALEVEL=3&APATH=3&CATNO=&DETAIL=0&DIM=&DS=99&FL=0&FREE=0&GAL=0&GC=99&GK=NA&GRP=1&IPS=&METH=0&ORDER=1&PID=89122&PTYPE=88971&RL=0&S=1&ShowAll=No&StartRow=1&SUB=0&Temporal=2006&Theme=73&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&GID=837928
| access-date = September 18, 2009}}
</ref><ref name="three">{{cite web
| title = Civilization.ca-Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage-object
| publisher = Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
| date = May 12, 2006
| url = http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/etb0000e.shtml
| access-date = October 2, 2009}}
</ref>
 
===Languages===
{{Main|Spoken languages of Canada#Aboriginal languages}}
 
Today, there are over thirty different languages spoken by indigenous people, most of which are spoken only in Canada. Many are in decline. Those with the most speakers include [[Anishinaabe language|Anishinaabe]] and [[Cree language|Cree]] (together totalling up to 150,000 speakers); [[Inuktitut]] with about 29,000 speakers in the [[Northwest Territories]], [[Nunavut]], Nunavik (Northern Quebec), and [[Nunatsiavut]] (Northern Labrador); and [[Mi'kmaq language|Mi'kmaq]], with around 8,500 speakers, mostly in Eastern Canada. Many Aboriginal peoples have lost their native languages and often all but surviving elders speak English or French as their first language.<ref name="online">{{Cite book
| last = Gordon
| first = Raymond G. Jr
| title = Ethnologue: Languages of the world
|edition=15
| publisher = [[SIL International]]
|location=Dallas, TX
| year = 2005
| url = http://www.ethnologue.com
|isbn=1-55671-159-X
| access-date =October 9, 2009 }}
</ref>
 
Two of Canada's territories give official status to native languages. In Nunavut, Inuktitut and [[Inuinnaqtun]] are official languages alongside English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in government. In the Northwest Territories, the ''Official Languages Act''<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.justice.gov.nt.ca/PDF/ACTS/Official_Languages.pdf |title=Official Languages Act |publisher=Government of Canada |work=Justice Canada |access-date=October 9, 2009 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090324214716/http://www.justice.gov.nt.ca/PDF/ACTS/Official_Languages.pdf |archive-date=March 24, 2009 }}</ref> declares that there are eleven different languages: [[Dene Suline language|Chipewyan]], [[Cree language|Cree]], [[English language|English]], [[French language|French]], [[Gwich'in language|Gwich'in]], [[Inuinnaqtun]], [[Inuktitut]], [[Inuvialuktun]], North [[Slavey language|Slavey]], South Slavey and [[Dogrib language|Tłįchǫ]]. Besides English and French, these languages are not vehicular in government; official status entitles citizens to receive services in them on request and to deal with the government in them.<ref name="online"/>
 
===Art===
{{Main|Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
[[File:Totem haida.jpg|thumb|right|[[Haida people|Haida]] totem pole, Thunderbird Park, Victoria, British Columbia]]
First Nations were producing art for thousands of years before the arrival of European [[Settler colonialism|settler colonists]] and the eventual establishment of Canada as a [[nation state]]. Like the peoples who produced them, indigenous art traditions spanned territories across North America. Indigenous art traditions are organized by art historians according to cultural, linguistic or regional groups: Northwest Coast, [[Plateau First Nations|Plateau]], [[Plains Indians|Plains]], [[Eastern Woodlands tribes|Eastern Woodlands]], Subarctic, and Arctic.<ref name="art" />
 
Art traditions vary enormously amongst and within these diverse groups. Indigenous art with a focus on portability and the body is distinguished from European traditions and its focus on architecture. Indigenous visual art may be used in conjunction with other arts. [[Shamanism among Eskimo peoples|Shaman]]s' [[Masks among Eskimo peoples|masks]] and rattles are used ceremoniously in dance, storytelling and music.<ref name="art" >{{cite book|last1=Hessel|first1=Ingo|last2=Hessel|first2=Dieter|title=Inuit Art|trans-title=An introduction. foreword by George Swinton|year=1998|publisher=[[British Museum]] Press|location=London, UK|isbn=0-7141-2545-8}}</ref>
Artworks preserved in museum collections date from the period after European contact and show evidence of the creative adoption and adaptation of European trade goods such as metal and glass beads.<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|url=https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-art-in-canada/|title=Aboriginal art in Canada|encyclopedia=The Canadian Encyclopedia|access-date=September 9, 2019}}</ref><ref name="Hempstead2010">{{cite book|author=Andrew Hempstead|title=Moon Alberta: Including Banff, Jasper & the Canadian Rockies|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=U3U-WpBsL80C&pg=PA477|date=May 11, 2010|publisher=Avalon Travel|isbn=978-1-59880-371-6|page=477}}</ref> During the 19th and the first half of the 20th century the Canadian government pursued an active policy of [[Forced assimilation|forced]] and [[cultural assimilation]] toward indigenous peoples. The ''Indian Act'' banned manifestations of the [[Sun Dance]], the [[Potlatch]], and works of art depicting them.<ref name="IA1880">{{cite book
|title=An Act further to amend "The Indian Act, 1880"
|edition=47 Vict.
|series=3
|year=1884
|location=S.C.
|chapter=17 An Act to amend "The Indian Act, 1880
|chapter-url=http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/arp/ls/pubs/d81c17/d81c17-eng.asp
|access-date=October 18, 2009
|archive-date=June 13, 2011
|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110613180222/http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/arp/ls/pubs/d81c17/d81c17-eng.asp
|url-status=dead
}}</ref>
 
It was not until the 1950s and 1960s that indigenous artists such as [[Mungo Martin]], [[Bill Reid]] and [[Norval Morrisseau]] began to publicly renew and re-invent indigenous art traditions. Currently there are indigenous artists practising in all media in Canada and two indigenous artists, [[Edward Poitras]] and [[Rebecca Belmore]], have represented Canada at the [[Venice Biennale]] in 1995 and 2005 respectively.<ref name="art" />
 
===Music===
[[File:2000 Eel Ground Pow-wow Dancer.jpg|thumb|upright|Pow-wow at Eel Ground First Nation]]
{{Main|Indigenous music of Canada}}
{{See also|Blackfoot music|Iroquois music| Kwakwaka'wakw music}}
The First Nations peoples of Canada comprise diverse ethnic groups, each with their own musical traditions. There are general similarities in the music, but is usually social (public) or ceremonial (private). Public, social music may be [[dance music]] accompanied by [[Rattle (percussion instrument)|rattles]] and [[drum]]s. Private, ceremonial music includes vocal songs with accompaniment on [[Percussion instrument|percussion]], used to mark occasions like Midewiwin ceremonies and Sun Dances.
 
Traditionally, Aboriginal peoples used the materials at hand to make their instruments for centuries before Europeans immigrated to Canada.<ref name="second">{{Cite book
| last = Patterson
| first = Nancy-Lou
|author-link=Nancy-Lou Patterson
| title = Canadian native art; arts and crafts of Canadian Indians and Eskimos
| publisher = Collier-Macmillan
| year = 1973
| location = Don Mills, Ontario
| isbn = 0-02-975610-3}}
</ref> First Nations people made [[gourd]]s and animal [[Horn (anatomy)|horns]] into rattles, which were elaborately carved and beautifully painted.<ref name="PDF">{{Cite book|title=First Nation music |publisher=Government of Canada |year=1998 |url=http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ach/lr/ks/cr/pubs/mus-eng.pdf |work=Indian & Northern Affairs Canada |isbn=0-662-26856-3 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110613192303/http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ach/lr/ks/cr/pubs/mus-eng.pdf |archive-date=June 13, 2011 }}
</ref> In woodland areas, they made horns of [[birch bark]] and [[Percussion mallet|drumsticks]] of carved [[antler]]s and wood. Traditional [[percussion instruments]] such as drums were generally made of carved wood and animal [[Hide (skin)|hides]].<ref name="Firsts">{{cite web
| title = Welcome to the Music, Dance and Culture of First Nations People, Métis and Inuit of Canada
| work = Veterans Affairs Canada Canada Remembers Features Aboriginal Spiritual Journey
| publisher = Government of Canada
| date = January 11, 2005
| url = http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=feature/abspirit/abback/ab_ceremony_program
| access-date = October 9, 2009
}}{{Dead link|date=February 2020 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Canadian Government section on First Nation music and dance</ref> These [[musical instrument]]s provide the background for songs, and songs are the background for dances. Traditional First Nations people consider song and dance to be sacred. For years after Europeans came to Canada, First Nations people were forbidden to practice their ceremonies.<ref name="IA1880"/><ref name="second" />
 
==மக்கள் தொகை பரம்பல்==
 
 
20-ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் கனடாவின் [[பூர்வ குடிகள்]] [[மக்கள் தொகை]] 10 மடங்காக உயர்ந்துள்ளது.<ref name="statcan_aboriginal_demographics">{{cite web| title=Aboriginal peoples of Canada: A demographic profile | url=http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/Products/Analytic/companion/abor/canada.cfm |work=Statistics Canada Analysis series : Aboriginal peoples of Canada |publisher=Government of Canada|access-date=May 14, 2008}}</ref> 1900- 1950 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு இடையில் இவர்களின் மக்கள் தொகை 25% மட்டும் உயர்ந்தது. 1960ஜகுக் சிசு இறப்பு தொகை குறைந்தபடியால், மக்கள் தொகை 161% அளவிற்கு உயர்ந்தது.
 
 
Today, Aboriginal people work in a variety of occupations and live outside their ancestral homes. The traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a strong influence on their culture, from spirituality to political attitudes.<ref name="three" />
 
 
 
===கனடா உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் ===
 
{{Further|கன்டா உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள்}}
[[கனடா]] நாட்டின் [[பூர்வ குடிகள்|முதல் குடிமக்களான]] [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்| கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்களின்]] குழந்தைகளை அவர்தம் பெற்றோர்களிடமிருந்து வலுக்கட்டாயமாக பிரித்து, [[கத்தோலிக்க திருச்சபை]]களால் நடத்தப்படும் உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளில் தங்க வைத்து உணவு, உடை மற்றும் கல்வி வழங்குவதுடன் மட்டுமின்றி, பழங்குடியின குழந்தைகள் தங்கள் தாய் மொழிகளில் பேசுவதை நிறுத்தவும், ஆங்கிலம் பிரஞ்ச் போன்ற மேற்கத்திய மொழிகளில் பேசவும், எழுதவும், படிக்கவும் பயிற்சி 1870 aandu muthal வழங்குகிறது. பொதுவாக பழங்குடியின குழந்தைகளிடமிருந்து தாய் மொழி, வழிபாடு, பண்பாடு மற்றும் நாகரித்தை மறக்கடிக்கவும், பழங்குடியின குழந்தைகளிடம் மேற்கத்திய கல்வி, பண்பாடு மற்றும் நாகரிகத்தை திணிப்பதே இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளின் நோக்கம் ஆகும். <ref name="GordonWhite">{{cite journal|last1=Gordon |first1=Catherine E. |last2=White |first2=Jerry P. |title=Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada |url=http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=iipj |journal=International Indigenous Policy Journal |date=June 2014 |volume=5 |issue=3 |doi=10.18584/iipj.2014.5.3.6 |doi-access=free |accessdate=June 27, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151130184321/http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1195&context=iipj |archivedate=November 30, 2015 }}</ref>
[[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்| கனடியப் பழங்குடி குழந்தைகளுக்கான]] இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் கனடா அரசின் நிதி உதவியுடன் [[கத்தோலிக்கம்]] போன்ற கிறித்துவத் திருச்சபைகளால் 1876-ஆம் ஆண்டு முதல் நடத்தப்பட்டது.<ref>{{refn|group=nb|''Indigenous'' has been capitalized in keeping with the style guide of the Government of Canada {{cite web|title=14.12 Elimination of Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping, Identification of Groups|url=https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tcdnstyl-srch?lang=eng&srchtxt=indigenous&cur=2&nmbr=2&lettr=14&info0=14.12#zz14|website=Translation Bureau|publisher=Public Works and Government Services Canada|accessdate=April 30, 2017|language=en|year=2017}}</ref>
 
இப்பள்ளியின் நோக்கங்களை மீறிய பழங்குடியின குழந்தைகளை, தங்கள் வழிக்கு கொண்டு வர கடுமை தண்டனைகள் வழங்குவதால், பல குழந்தைகள் இறந்து விடுகின்றனர். அவ்வாறு இறந்த குழந்தைகளை பள்ளிக்கு அருகே [[2021 கனடா செவ்விந்திய உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளில் பிணக்குழிகள் கண்டுபிடிப்பு|சவக்குழிகளில் புதைத்து]] விடுகின்றனர். மேலும் உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளில் பழங்குடியின குழந்தைகளை காண அவர்தம் பெற்றோர்களுக்கு அனுமதி மறுக்கப்பட்டதால், தங்கள் குழந்தைகளின் நிலையைப் பெற்றோர்களால் அறிய முடியவில்லை. எனவே பள்ளிக் குழந்தைகளின் பெறோர் இந்த கட்டாய உறைவிடப் பள்ளி முறையை எதிர்த்தனர். <ref name="Dupuis">{{cite news|last1=Dupuis |first1=Josée |title=Escape and resist: An untold history of residential schools in Quebec |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/resisting-residential-schools-1.3823181 |accessdate=December 3, 2016 |publisher=CBC News |date=October 27, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161212105124/http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/resisting-residential-schools-1.3823181 |archivedate=December 12, 2016 }}</ref> உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளுக்கு பதிலாக, குழந்தைகள் பள்ளி முடிந்த பிறகு வீட்டிற்கு வரும் வகையில் சாதாரண பகல் நேரப் பள்ளிகளை துவக்குமாறு கோரிக்கை வைத்தனர்.ஆனால் கனடா அரசும், கத்தோலிக்கத் திருச்சபைகளும் இக்கோரிக்கையை ஏற்க மறுத்தனர்.<ref name="TRCHistoryPart1" />{{rp|669–674}}<ref name="McKay">{{cite web|last1=McKay |first1=Celeste |title=Briefing Note on Terminology |url=http://umanitoba.ca/student/indigenous/terminology.html |publisher=University of Manitoba |accessdate=April 30, 2017 |date=April 2015 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161025224808/http://umanitoba.ca/student/indigenous/terminology.html |archivedate=October 25, 2016 }}</ref>}}<ref name="IndigenousFoundations">{{cite web|title=The Residential School System|url=http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/the_residential_school_system/|website=Indigenous Foundations|publisher=UBC First Nations and Indigenous Studies|accessdate=April 14, 2017}}</ref><ref name="Luxen">{{cite news|last1=Luxen |first1=Micah |title=Survivors of Canada's 'cultural genocide' still healing |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33001425 |accessdate=June 28, 2016 |publisher=BBC |date=June 24, 2016 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160725181119/http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33001425 |archivedate=July 25, 2016 }}</ref><ref name="milloy" />{{rp|42}} ஒரு நூற்றாண்டுக்கு மேலாக செயல்பட்ட இந்த உறைவிடப்பள்ளிகளில், 1,50,000 கனடாவின் [[பூர்வ குடிகள்|பூர்வ குடிகளின்]] குழந்தைகள் தங்கிப் படித்தனர்.<ref name="TRCExec" />{{rp|2–3}} 1930களில் இந்த உறைவிடப்பள்ளிகளில் பூர்வ குடிமக்களின் 30% குழந்தைகள் படித்தனர்.<ref name="NCTROverview">{{cite web |title=Residential Schools Overview |url=http://umanitoba.ca/centres/nctr/overview.html |publisher=University of Manitoba |accessdate=April 14, 2017 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160420012021/http://umanitoba.ca/centres/nctr/overview.html |archivedate=April 20, 2016 }}</ref> போதிய ஆவணம் இல்லாத நிலையில் இப்பள்ளி வளாகங்களில் இறந்த [[பூர்வ குடிகள்|கனடா பூர்வ குடிகளின்]] குழந்தைகளின் எண்ணிக்கை 3,200 முதல் 30,000 ஆக இருக்கும் என மதிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ள்து. <ref name="Tasker">{{cite news|last1=Tasker |first1=John Paul |title=Residential schools findings point to 'cultural genocide', commission chair says |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/residential-schools-findings-point-to-cultural-genocide-commission-chair-says-1.3093580 |accessdate=July 1, 2016 |publisher=CBC News |date=May 29, 2015 |url-status=live |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160518220713/http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/residential-schools-findings-point-to-cultural-genocide-commission-chair-says-1.3093580 |archivedate=May 18, 2016 }}</ref><ref name="Smith" /><ref>{{Cite encyclopedia|title=Truth and Reconciliation Commission |encyclopedia= The Canadian Encyclopedia|url=https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/truth-and-reconciliation-commission|last=Moran|first=Ry|date=October 5, 2020}}</ref>பின்னர் பழங்குடியின மகக்ளின் தொடர் போராட்டத்தால், கனடா அரசு இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் செயல்பட அனுமதி மறுத்தது. எனவே இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் செயல்பட்டை 1960 முதல் 1988-ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை படிப்படியாக நிறுத்தப்பட்டது.
 
பின்னர் பழகுடியின மகக்ளின் தொடர் போராட்டத்தால், கனடா அரசு இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் செயல்பட அனுமதி மறுத்தது. எனவே இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் செயல்பட்டை 1960 முதல் 1988-ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை படிப்படியாக நிறுத்தப்பட்டது.
===2021 கனடா பூர்வ குடிகள் உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளில் பிணக்குழிகள் கண்டுபிடிப்பு===
{{முதன்மை|2021 கனடா பூர்வ குடிகள் உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளில் பிணக்குழிகள் கண்டுபிடிப்பு}}
[[கனடா]] நாட்டின் [[பிரிட்டிசு கொலம்பியா]], [[சஸ்காச்சுவான்]] மற்றும் [[மானிட்டோபா]] மாகாணங்களில் [[கிறித்துவம்|கிறித்துவச் சபைகளால்]] 1863 முதல் 1998-ஆம் ஆண்டு வரை இயங்கிக் கொண்டிருந்த [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பழங்குடி குழந்தைகளுக்கான]] [[கனடா உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள்|உறைவிடப்பள்ளி வளாகங்களின்]] தரைக்கு அடியில் உள்ள பொருட்களை ஆய்வு செய்யும் திறன் படைத்த [[கதிரலைக் கும்பா|ரேடர் கருவிகளைக்]] கொண்டு மே மற்றும் சூன் 2021 மாதங்களில் ஆய்வு செய்கையில், [[செவ்விந்தியர்]] உள்ளிட்ட நூற்றுக்கணக்கான [[கனடியப் பழங்குடி மக்கள்|கனடியப் பழங்குடி குழந்தைககளின்]] எலும்புக் கூடுகள் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டது. இவ்வாறு [[பண்பாட்டுப் படுகொலை]] செய்யப்பட்ட பழங்குடியின குழந்தைகளில் 3 வயது குழந்தைகளும் அடங்கும். கனடாவின் பழங்குடி மக்களை மறைமுகமாக [[கிறித்துவம்|கிறித்துவ]] மத மாற்றத்திற்காக, பழங்குடி மக்களின் மொழி, பண்பாடு ஆகியவைகளை அழித்து, ஐரோப்பிய பண்பாடு, [[கிறித்துவம்|கிறித்துவச் சமயத்திற்கு]] வலுக்கட்டாயமாக மாற்றவும் இந்த உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகள் செயல்பட்டது. கனடா அரசு உறைவிடப் பள்ளிகளின் வளாகப் புதைகுழிகளில் மரணித்த 2,800 குழந்தைகளின் பெயர்களை வெளியிட்டுள்ளது.<ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-49884387 Canada reveals names of 2,800 victims of residential schools]</ref>
 
===தன்னாட்சி முறை ===
 
Canada's federal residential school system began in the mid-1870s, building upon a patchwork of boarding schools established and operated by various Christian denominations. Member of Parliament for Assiniboia West, Nicholas Flood Davin, produced a report, known generally as the Davin Report, that recommended the establishment of a school system similar to that being created in the United States. One of its chief goals was to remove Aboriginal children from "the influence of the wigwam", which he claimed was stronger than that of existing day schools, and keep them instead "constantly within the circle of civilized conditions". While the history of the [[Canadian Indian residential school system|Indian Residential School system]] (IRS) is a checkered one, much criticism has been levelled at both the system and those who established and supported it. Neglect and poor nutrition were often what Aboriginal children experienced, particularly in the early decades of the system's operation. The stripping away of traditional native culture—sometimes referred to as "cultural genocide"—is another charge levelled at the residential schools. In many schools, students were not allowed to speak their Indigenous languages or practice any of their own customs, and thus lost their sense of identity, inevitably driving a cultural wedge between children and their family.<ref name=":1" />
 
By 1920, attendance at some sort of school was mandatory for Aboriginal children in Canada. The ''Indian Act'' made education compulsory, and where there were no federal days schools—or, in later decades, a provincial public school—a residential school was the only choice. Enrolment statistics indicate that between 20% and 30% of Aboriginal children during the history of the IRS system attended a residential school for at least a year, and many were enrolled for ten years or more. In some cases, children could return home on weekends and holidays, but for those in schools established far away from remote communities, this was not possible.
 
The removal of children from their families and communities brought short and long term harm to many native communities. While many schools had infirmaries and provided medical care in later decades, abuse of various kinds and crowded conditions in the first decades of the IRS history led to poor health and even death for a percentage of those enrolled. It has been argued that the psychological and emotional trauma resulting from both the abuse and the removal of the children from their families and culture has resulted in substance abuse, greater domestic violence, unemployability, and increased rates of suicide.<ref name=":3">{{Cite web|url = http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/the-residential-school-system.html|title = The Residential School System|date = 2009|access-date = December 14, 2014|website = Indigenous Foundations|publisher = University of British Columbia|url-status = dead|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20160627221843/http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/the-residential-school-system.html|archive-date = June 27, 2016}}</ref> In many cases, children leaving residential schools found themselves at an intersection of cultures, where they were no longer comfortable within their own cultures, yet not accepted into mainstream Canadian culture. Former students are now routinely referred to as "survivors".
 
Not all Aboriginal children attended residential schools. During the period in which the schools operated, more than a third of indigenous children attended federal day schools, and about a third received no schooling at all. It is however the residential school system that receives much of the blame for the various problems and challenges facing Canada's indigenous people today. During the years in which the residential schools operated, they were regarded by most Canadians as a sensible and beneficial solution to native education, and in some cases, Aboriginal communities specifically requested that a residential school be built. When the system began to closing down in the 1960s, a significant number of communities asked that their school remain open.
 
The last Canadian residential school to close was [[Gordon Indian Residential School]] in Saskatchewan, founded in 1889, and closed in 1996.<ref name=":3" />
 
The Christian denominations that operated the schools on behalf of the federal government have expressed regret and issued apologies for their part in a system that harmed many indigenous children. In 2008, the government issued an official apology to the students who were forced to attend the residential schools and their families.<ref name=":3" />
 
In June 2015, the federally-established Truth and Reconciliation Commission, charged with investigating and reporting on the residential school system, issued its summary report, and in December of the same year, its final report. Chief Commissioner, Judge Murray Sinclair, has publicly declared the residential school system a deliberate act of cultural genocide against First Nations peoples. In its report, the commission submitted 94 recommendations to the Canadian government, recommendations which, if implemented, would substantially improve indigenous race relations, increase quality of life for survivors and extended families, and help undo the damage caused by residential schools. While the Liberal government, under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, has committed itself to improving the lives of Canada's indigenous people, and specifically to implementing the TRC recommendations, some of those recommendations may be beyond the power of the Canadian government. The countless research documents assembled by the TRC will be archived in a special repository at the University of Manitoba.
 
=== Employment ===
The income of women with status living off-reserve was on average $13,870 a year, according to a 1996 Canadian census. This is about $5500 less than non-Indigenous women, such as Inuit and Métis women, which recorded slightly higher average annual incomes; regardless of the small discrepancy, all of which are substantially less than Statistics Canada's estimated amount of which an individual living in a large Canadian city would require to meet their needs. It is not unlikely for Aboriginal women living in poverty to not only tend to their own needs, but often tend to the needs of their elderly parents, care for loved ones in ill-health, as well as raising children; all of which is often supported only on a single income. It is believed that homelessness and inadequate shelter are widespread problems facing Aboriginal families, in all settings.<ref name=":1" />
 
=== Self governance ===
A paramount conclusion by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples is that the repeated assaults on the culture and collective identity of the Aboriginal people has resulted in a weakened foundation of Aboriginal society and has contributed to the alienation that inevitably drives some to self-destructive and antisocial behaviour. The social problems among Aboriginal people are, in large measure, a legacy of history.<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|url=https://courseware.mymru.ca/bbcswebdav/pid-2984811-dt-content-rid-8719626_1/courses/50730.201404/Amnesty%20International%20--%20Stolen%20Sisters.pdf |title=Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada |last=Anonymous |date=Winter–Spring 2008 |journal=Canadian Woman Studies }}{{dead link|date=May 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
=== Crime and incarceration ===
{{Further|Gladue report#Over-representation of Aboriginal People in Criminal Justice System|}}
Aboriginals are also more likely to be the victims of crime. This is particularly true in the younger population (aged 15–34), where acts of violence are two and a half times more likely to occur than in the older population. Domestic violence and sexual abuse against children is more prevalent in the Aboriginal population with sexual abuse affecting 25–50% of Aboriginal female children versus 20–25% of female children in the general population.<ref name=":2">{{Cite web|url = http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/victim/rd3-rr3/p3.html|title = Aboriginal Victimization in Canada: A Summary of the Literature|date = April 30, 2013|access-date = December 13, 2014|website = Victims of Crime Research Digest No. 3|publisher = Canada Department of Justice}}</ref> Children who come from homes with a history of violence are at a greater risk of becoming the perpetrators of violence later in life. This is especially true of males.<ref name=":2" />
 
As of 2007, 17% of incarcerated individuals in Canada were of Aboriginal descent, despite representing only 2.7% of the general population.<ref>{{cite web|title=Aboriginal Corrections|url=http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/aboriginal/index-eng.shtml|publisher=Correctional Service Canada|access-date=May 7, 2016|quote=At the end of March 2007, Aboriginal people accounted for 17.0% of federally sentenced offenders although the general Aboriginal population is only 2.7% of the Canadian adult population.|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160505194816/http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/aboriginal/index-eng.shtml|archive-date=May 5, 2016|url-status=dead}}</ref> This is a sixfold increase in rates of incarceration within the Aboriginal population as opposed to the general Canadian population.<ref name=":2" /> There are many reasons for the over-representation of Aboriginals within the Canadian justice system. Lack of education, poverty, unemployment and abuse all lead to higher crime rates. Also, statistically, Aboriginals have a greater chance of conviction and subsequently, incarceration once convicted. They are also much less likely to receive parole during their sentence.<ref name=":2" />
 
=== Health ===
The Canadian federal government is responsible for health and social services on the reserve and in Inuit communities, while the provincial and territorial governments provide services elsewhere. The divide between each level of government has led to a gap in services for Aboriginal people living off-reserve and in Canadian towns and cities. Although Aboriginal people living off-reserve have access to the programs and services designed for the general population, these programs and services do not address the specific needs of Aboriginal people, nor is it delivered in a [[culturally appropriate]] way. It has not been until recently that the Canadian federal government had to increase recognition to the needs for programs and services for Aboriginal people in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities. It is however funding that lags the growth of urban Aboriginal populations and the uncoordinated delivery of services through various government departments would also pose as a barrier. The federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians pointed out that in 2003 almost 90 percent of the funding for programs designed for Aboriginal peoples is spent on reserves, while off-reserve programs for Aboriginal people are delivered through just 22 federal departments, as well as other provincial and territorial agencies. The federal subcommittee on Indigenous child welfare described a "jurisdictional web" in which there is little to no coordination with or between municipal, provincial and federal levels of government.<ref name=":1" />
 
The health care services available to Aboriginal people is rarely delivered in a [[culturally sensitive]] approach. It is the constant cast of "the other" by the settler Canadian population that contaminates the delivery of such necessary services to Aboriginal peoples. It was argued by Ontario finance minister Jim Flaherty in 1992 that the Canadian government could boost health-care funding for "real people in real towns" by cutting the bureaucracy that serves only Aboriginal peoples. These types of statements, especially made by people often heard by a greater audience, are said to have detrimental and influential effects on the overall attitudes of settler population folks, as well as Aboriginal peoples.<ref>{{Cite book|title = Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide|last = Smith|first = Andrea|publisher = South End Press|year = 2005|isbn = 978-0-89608-743-9|location = Cambridge, MA|page = 12}}</ref>
 
==== Diabetes ====
{{main|First Nations and diabetes}}
There are marked differences between the epidemiology of diabetes in First Nation population compared to the general population. Reasons for the different rate of [[Type 2 diabetes|Type 2 Diabetes]] between First Nation and the general population include a complex combination of environmental (lifestyle, diet, poverty) and genetic and biological factors (e.g. [[Thrifty gene hypothesis|thrifty genotype hypothesis]], [[thrifty phenotype]]) <ref>Pollard, T. M. 2008. Western Diseases: An Evolutionary Perspective. Chapter 4: The thrifty genotype versus thrifty phenotype debate: efforts to explain between population variation in rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</ref> – though to what extent each factor plays a role is still not clear.<ref name="10.1503/cmaj.090846">{{cite journal |first1=Roland |last1=Dyck |first2=Nathaniel |last2=Osgood |first3=Ting Hsiang |last3=Lin |first4=Amy |last4=Gao |first5=Mary Rose |last5=Stang |date=23 February 2010 |title=Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus among First Nations and non-First Nations adults |journal=Canadian Medical Association Journal |volume=182|issue=3|pages=249–256 |doi=10.1503/cmaj.090846 |pmid=20083562 |pmc=2826466 |url=https://www.cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/182/3/249.full.pdf}}</ref>
 
The Aboriginal population in Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) have a significantly higher prevalence rate of diabetes than the non-Aboriginal population. Age-standardized rates show that the prevalence of diabetes among First Nations individuals living on-reserve is 17.2%; First Nations individuals living off-reserve is 10.3%; Métis individuals 7.3%; and non-Aboriginal peoples at 5.0%. It is important to note that Aboriginal individuals are generally diagnosed at a younger age than non-Aboriginal individuals, and Aboriginal females experience higher rates of gestational diabetes than non-Aboriginal females. The complications and prevalence of diabetes are seen among the Aboriginal population more often than non-Aboriginal population. These may be attributed to the socio-cultural, biological, environmental and lifestyle changes seen in the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis populations, which have been most especially prevalent in the last half century, all of which contributing significantly to the increased rates of diabetes and the complications associated among the Aboriginal population.<ref>{{Cite web|url = http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/publications/diabetes-diabete/facts-figures-faits-chiffres-2011/highlights-saillants-eng.php#chp6|title = Diabetes in Canada: Facts and figures from a public health perspective|date = December 15, 2011|website = Statistics Canada|publisher = Public Health Agency of Canada}}</ref>
 
==== Substance-use disorders ====
First Nations in Canada engage in a disproportionate amount of substance abuse substance use. In Vancouver, Indigenous people were faced with almost 18 per cent of drug charges, but are just 2.2 per cent of the city’s population. A much higher proportion of First Nations people engage in heavy drinking weekly (16%) as opposed to the general population (8%).<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Spillane|first1=Nichea S.|last2=Greenfield|first2=Brenna|last3=Venner|first3=Kamilla|last4=Kahler|first4=Christopher W.|date=February 2015|title=Alcohol use among reserve-dwelling adult First Nation members: Use, Problems, and Intention to Change Drinking Behavior|journal=Addictive Behaviors|volume=41|pages=232–237|doi=10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.015|issn=0306-4603|pmc=4403763|pmid=25452070}}</ref> 19% of First Nations also reported cocaine and opiates use, higher than 13% of the general Canadian population that reported using opioids.<ref name=":5">{{Cite journal|last1=Firestone|first1=Michelle|last2=Smylie|first2=Janet|last3=Maracle|first3=Sylvia|last4=McKnight|first4=Constance|last5=Spiller|first5=Michael|last6=O’Campo|first6=Patricia|date=2015|title=Mental health and substance use in an urban First Nations population in Hamilton, Ontario|journal=Canadian Journal of Public Health |volume=106|issue=6|pages=e375–e381|issn=0008-4263|jstor=90005913|doi=10.17269/CJPH.106.4923|pmid=26680428|pmc=6972211}}</ref>
 
==== Life expectancy ====
[[Life expectancy]] at birth is significantly lower for First Nations babies than for babies in the Canadian population as a whole. {{As of|2001}}, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada estimates First Nations life expectancy to be 8.1 years shorter for males and 5.5 years shorter for females.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnih-spni/diseases-maladies/2005-01_health-sante_indicat_e.html |title=First Nations Comparable Health Indicators |work=Health Canada First Nations, Inuit & Aboriginal Health Diseases & Health Conditions |publisher=Government of Canada |date=March 16, 2007 |access-date=May 14, 2008 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080512140346/http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnih-spni/diseases-maladies/2005-01_health-sante_indicat_e.html |archive-date=May 12, 2008 }}</ref> Where females in the general population had a life expectancy at birth of 82 years, First Nations females had a life expectancy of 76 years. In males the life expectancy for First Nations individuals was 69 years as opposed to 77 in the general population.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.aboriginalgba.ca/category.aspx?catid=119&rt=2 |title=Life Expectancy |date=2009 |access-date=December 13, 2014 |website=Our Voices: First Nations, Metis, and Inuit GBA |publisher=First Nations, Metis, and Inuit GBA |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150211091413/http://aboriginalgba.ca/category.aspx?catid=119&rt=2 |archive-date=February 11, 2015 }}</ref> The reasons behind the lower life expectancy for First Nations individuals are varied and complex; however, [[social determinants of health]] are thought to play a large part.
 
==== Suicide ====
Overall, First Nations individuals have some of the highest rates of suicide globally. Suicide rates are more than twice the sex-specific rate and also three times the age-specific rates of non-Aboriginal Canadians.<ref>{{cite web|last=Robinson|first=B.A.|url=http://www.religioustolerance.org/sui_nati.htm|title=Suicide among Canada's First Nations|publisher=Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance|date= January 3, 2007 |access-date=October 9, 2009}}</ref> Residential Aboriginals between ages 10 and 29 show an elevated suicide risk as compared to non-residential Aboriginals by 5–6 times.<ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|title = Suicide Among Canadian Aboriginal Peoples|last = Kirmayer|first = Laurence J.|date = March 1994|journal = Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review|volume = 31|pages = 3–58|doi = 10.1177/136346159403100101|s2cid = 146137986}}</ref> One theory for the increased incidences of suicide within Aboriginal populations as compared to the general Canadian population is called acculturation stress which results from the intersection of multiple cultures within one's life. This leads to differing expectations and cultural clashes within the community, the family and the individual. At the community level, a general economic disadvantage is seen, exacerbated by unemployment and low education levels, leading to poverty, political disempowerment and community disorganization. The family suffers through a loss of tradition as they attempt to assimilate into mainstream Canadian culture. These lead to low self-esteem in the individual as First Nations culture and tradition are marginalized affecting one's sense of self-identity. These factors combine to create a world where First Nations individuals feel they cannot identify completely as Aboriginal, nor can they fully identify as mainstream Canadians. When that balance cannot be found, many (particularly youths) turn to suicide as a way out.<ref name=":0" />
 
==== Drinking water ====
Approximately 400 First Nation communities in Canada have had, and continue to have serious problems with the quality of their drinking water. The residents of Neskantaga First Nation in Ontario have been forced to boil their water for the past 20 years to make it safe.<ref>Joanne Levasseur, Jacques Marcoux, [http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/bad-water-third-world-conditions-on-first-nations-in-canada-1.3269500 "Bad water: 'Third World' conditions on First Nations in Canada"], CBC News, October 14, 2015.</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.amnesty.ca/our-work/issues/indigenous-peoples/indigenous-peoples-in-canada/the-right-to-water|title=The Right to Water|date=October 18, 2012}}</ref> The newly elected Prime Minister [[Justin Trudeau]] promised to solve the drinking water problem within five years, by investing $1.8 billion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/canada-election-2015-justin-trudeau-first-nations-boil-water-advisories-1.3258058|title=Trudeau vows to end First Nations reserve boil-water advisories within 5 years |publisher= CBC News}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/first-nations-orbis-infrastructure-water-consultants-budgets-1.3780760|title=Feds ask why First Nations projects over budget — Answer? The feds |publisher= CBC News}}</ref>
 
=== Land claims ===
{{main|Indigenous land claims in Canada}}
Across Canada, many First Nations have not signed treaties with the [[Canadian Crown]]. Many First Nations are in the process of negotiating a modern treaty, which would grant them [[treaty rights]].<ref name=":4">{{cite encyclopedia|url=https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/land-claims|title=Indigenous Land Claims|encyclopedia=[[The Canadian Encyclopedia]]|access-date=September 9, 2019}}</ref> Some First Nation bands are also trying to resolve their [[Indigenous specific land claims in Canada|historical grievances]] with the Canadian government. These grievances often originate from a breach of treaty obligations or of the ''Indian Act'' by the government of Canada. They can also involve mismanagement of indigenous land or assets by the Crown.<ref name=":4" />
 
===Missing and murdered women===
{{main|Missing and murdered Indigenous women}}
{{Further|AmINext|}}
Across Canada, there has been a large number of missing and murdered Aboriginal women since 1980. 16% of female murder victims and 12% of missing women have been Aboriginal, while demographically they constitute only 4% of the overall female population. This amounts to almost 1,200 Aboriginal females either missing or murdered in just over 30 years.<ref>{{Cite news|url = https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/its-time-for-canada-to-act-on-missing-and-murdered-aboriginal-women/article18638089/|title = It's time for Canada to act on missing and murdered aboriginal women|first=Meghan| last=Rhoad|date = May 13, 2014|access-date = November 21, 2014|website = Globe and Mail}}</ref>
 
In 2014 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) released ''Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Review''. This publication documents the official findings of this demographic as well as advises for future change. It finds that there are 164 Aboriginal women still missing and 1,017 murdered, making for a total of 1,181.<ref name="Royal Canadian Mounted Police">{{Cite web|url = http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uvic/reader.action?docID=10885975|title = Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational overview|date = 2014|access-date = April 8, 2015 |publisher = Royal Canadian Mounted Police }}</ref> "There are 225 unsolved cases of either missing or murdered Aboriginal females: 105 missing for more than 30 days {{as of|2013|November|4|lc=y|df=US}}, whose cause of disappearance was categorized as 'unknown' or 'foul play suspected' and 120 unsolved homicides between 1980 and 2012."<ref name="Royal Canadian Mounted Police"/> Indigenous women in Canada are overrepresented among the missing and murdered females in Canada. Additionally, there are shared characteristics among these cases: most of the murders were committed by men and were someone the victim knew, either a partner or an acquaintance.<ref name="Royal Canadian Mounted Police"/> "Aboriginal women between the ages of 25 and 44 are 5 times more likely than other women of the same age to die as a result of violence."<ref name="KuokkanenGRSV">Rauna Kuokkanen. "[https://rauna.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/793277480_content.pdf]" 2008.</ref> These statistics portray the severity and prevalence of violence against indigenous women in Canada.
 
Self-governance and preservation of indigenous territories become increasingly difficult as natural resources continue to be exploited by foreign companies. Projects such as "mining, logging, hydroelectric construction, large-scale export oriented agribusiness or oil exploration"{{attribution needed|date=June 2016}} are usually coupled with environmental degradation and occasionally violence and militarization."{{attribution needed|date=June 2016}}<ref name="KuokkanenGRSV"/> Many scholars go so far as to link the proliferation of global neoliberalism with a rise in violence.<ref name="KuokkanenGRSV"/> Women's concerns are nearly always pushed aside, to be addressed later; their safety is therefore often compromised and not deemed priority. Privatization of public services and reduction in the universality of health care produces negative repercussions for those of lower socioeconomic status in rural locations; these downsides are magnified for female Aboriginals.<ref name="KuokkanenGRSV"/>
 
===Missing and murdered men===
Approximately 2,500 aboriginal people were murdered in Canada between 1982 and 2011, out of 15,000 murders in Canada overall. Of the 2,500 murdered aboriginal Canadians, fully 71 per cent — 1,750 — were male.<ref>{{Cite web|url = http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/adam-jones-aboriginal-men-are-murdered-and-missing-far-more-than-aboriginal-women-a-proper-inquiry-would-explore-both|title = Adam Jones: Aboriginal men are murdered and missing far more than aboriginal women. A proper inquiry would explore both|date = April 27, 2015|access-date = September 18, 2016|website = National Post}}</ref>
 
According to summaries of seven consultation sessions posted to a government website, the desire to dedicate some attention to violence against indigenous men and boys has come up at four of the meetings.<ref name=MMAMglobeandmail02012016>{{Cite news|url = https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/national-inquiry-should-not-study-violence-against-aboriginal-men-experts/article28498467/|title = National inquiry should not study violence against aboriginal men: experts|first=Kathryn Blake| last=Baum|date = February 1, 2016|access-date = September 18, 2016|website = The Globe and Mail}}</ref>
 
These calls to extend the scope of the inquiry to include missing and murdered aboriginal people of all genders have met with resistance and been criticized as detracting from the current focus on the issue of missing and murdered aboriginal women. Barbara Bailey, who was on the UN team that visited Canada in 2013 to investigate the violence, has said, "I think to detract now would really be a tragedy. Let's fix that problem first and then we can begin to see what else is out there."
 
Speaking on the matter, [[Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs|Minister of Indigenous Affairs]], [[Carolyn Bennett]] has said, "Our mandate now is to get to the bottom of the tragedy of missing and murdered indigenous women and girls in Canada", citing sexism as being of specific concern. Dawn Lavell-Harvard, the president of the [[Native Women's Association of Canada]], has also weighed in on the issue by saying, "Absolutely [men] deserve the same amount of attention, just not necessarily in the same forum", neither that forum nor an equal level of attention have yet to materialize.<ref name=MMAMglobeandmail02012016 />
 
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