முதன்மை பட்டியைத் திறக்கவும்

மாற்றங்கள்

108 பைட்டுகள் சேர்க்கப்பட்டது ,  10 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்
சி
தானியங்கிமாற்றல்: ar:أمازون دوت كوم; cosmetic changes
{{Infobox Dotcom company
| company_name = அமேசான்.காம் இன்கு.
| company_logo = [[Imageபடிமம்:Amazon.com logo.svg|225px]]
| company_type = [[Public company|பொது]] ({{nasdaq|AMZN}})
| foundation = [[1994]]
| location_country = [[ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா|அமேரிக்கா]]
| area_served = [[World|உலகம் முழுவதும்]]
| key_people = [[Jeff Bezos|செப்ரே பி. பீசாசு]]<br /><small>([[Chairman]]), ([[chief executive officer|CEO]]) & ([[President]])</small>
| num_employees = 20,500 (''2008'')<ref name=zenobank>{{cite web |url=http://zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=AMZN&page=quotesearch |title=Company Profile for Amazon.com Inc (AMZN) |accessdate=2008-10-02}}</ref>
| industry = [[Retail]]
| equity = {{increase}} [[ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா dollar|US$]] 2.672 [[பில்லியன்]] (''2008'')
| market cap = $21.27 [[பில்லியன்]] (''2008'')
| products = அமேசான்.வணி<br />[[A9.com|ஏ9]]<br />[[Alexa Internet|அலேக்சா இணையம்]]<br />[[Internet Movie Database|ஐ.எம்.டி.பி]]<br />[[அமேசான் கிண்டுல்]] <br />[[அமேசான் வலை சேவைகள்]]
| url = [http://www.amazon.com அமேசான்.வணி]
| website_type = [[இணைய-வணிகம்]]
[[வெர்டிக்டு ஆராய்ச்சி]] கழகம் ஒரு கணக்கெடுப்பு நடத்தி சனவரி 15, 2009 அன்று வெளியிட்டது. அதில், அமேசான் தான் யூ.கே மக்களுக்கு பிடித்தமான இசை மற்றும் விழிகள் விற்பனையாளர் என்று கூறப்பட்டிருந்தது. விற்பணைப்பட்டியலில் மூன்றாவது இடத்தினையையும் பிடித்தது.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thebookseller.com/news/74820-amazon-is-uks-third-favourite-retailer.html |title=Amazon is UK's third favorite retailer |publisher=theBookseller.com |accessdate=2009-01-15}}</ref>
 
== வரலாறு மற்றும் வியாபாரம் ==
 
Amazon was founded in 1994, spurred by what Bezos called "regret minimization framework", his effort to fend off regret for not staking a claim in the [[Internet gold rush]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://web.archive.org/web/20000408032804/http://www.time.com/time/poy/bezos5.html | title=Time Magazine 1999 Person of the Year &ndash; Jeffrey P. Bezos | accessdate = 2008-01-05}}</ref> While company lore says Bezos wrote the business plan while he and his wife drove from [[New York City|New York]] to Seattle,<ref>[http://www.portfolio.com/resources/executive-profiles/Jeffrey-P-Bezos-1984 Top Executive Profiles - Jeffrey P. Bezos - Portfolio.com<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> that account appears to be [[apocrypha]]l.<ref name=nyt10years>[http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/10/business/yourmoney/10amazon.html?ei=5090&en=c805d53acf76f2b3&ex=1278648000&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&pagewanted=all NYTimes, July 10, 2005: "A Retail Revolution Turns 10"]</ref>
 
The company began as an online [[bookstore]];<ref name=nyt10years /> while the largest [[brick and mortar business|brick-and-mortar]] bookstores and [[mail-order catalog]]s for books might offer 200,000 titles, an on-line bookstore could offer more. Bezos named the company "Amazon" after the world's [[Amazon River|biggest river]]. Since 2000, Amazon's logotype is an arrow leading from A to Z, representing customer satisfaction (as it forms a smile) and the goal to have every product in the alphabet.<ref name="a-to-z">[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97664&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=70550&highlight= Amazon.com Introduces New Logo; New Design Communicates Customer Satisfaction and A-to-Z Selection]</ref>
In 1999, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine named Bezos [[Person of the Year]], recognizing the company's success in popularizing [[on-line shopping]].
 
=== Merchant partnerships ===
The Web site [[CDNOW]] (cdnow.com) is powered and hosted by Amazon. Until June 30, 2006, typing [[Toys R Us|ToysRUs]].com into a browser would similarly bring up Amazon.com's Toys & Games tab; however, this relationship was terminated as the result of a lawsuit.<ref name="ect">E-Commerce Times: [http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/49188.html Toys 'R' Us wins right to end amazon partnership.], March 3, 2006</ref>
 
Amazon.com powers and operates retail web sites for [[Target Corporation|Target]], [[Sears Canada]], [[Benefit Cosmetics]], [[Bebe Stores]], [[Timex Corporation]], [[Marks & Spencer]], [[Mothercare]], and [[Lacoste]]. For a growing number of [[Business|enterprise]] clients, currently including the UK merchants Marks & Spencer, Benefit Cosmetics' UK entity and Mothercare, Amazon provides a unified multichannel platform whence a customer can interchangeably interact with the retail website, standalone in-store terminals, and phone-based customer service agents. [[Amazon Web Services]] also powers [[AOL]]'s Shop@AOL.
 
== இடம் ==
=== Headquarters ===
[[Imageபடிமம்:Seattle-PacMed-2571.JPG|thumb|right|Amazon.com's headquarters in the PacMed building in [[Beacon Hill, Seattle, Washington|Beacon Hill, Seattle]].]]The company's global headquarters is located on Seattle's [[Beacon Hill, Seattle, Washington|Beacon Hill]]. It has offices throughout other parts of greater Seattle including [[Union Station (Seattle)|Union Station]] and The [[Columbia Center]].
 
Amazon has announced plans to move its headquarters to the [[South Lake Union]] neighborhood of Seattle beginning in mid-2010, with full occupancy by 2011. This move will consolidate all Seattle employees onto the new 11-building campus.<ref>[http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/344495_amazon22.html "Amazon to set up shop in South Lake Union"]. Accessed online 15 July 2008.</ref>
 
=== மென்பொருள் உருவாகும் இடங்கள் ===
உலகம் முழுவதும் இந்நிருவனம் மென்பொருள் உருவாக்குபவர்களை பணியில் ஈடுபடுத்தியுள்ளது. மென்பொருள் உருவாக்கம் பெரும்பாலும் சியாட்டலில் நடைபெறுகிறது. இதனை தவிற மற்ற இடங்கள்
*[[சலவ்]] ([[United Kingdom]])
*[[டெம்பி, அரிசோனா]] (ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்க நாடுகள்)
 
=== நிறைவேற்று தளம் ===
கீழ் வரும் நகரங்களில் அதுவும் விமான நிலையத்திற்கு அருகில் நிறைவேற்றுத்தளங்கள் அமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. அமேசான் தனது இருப்பிடத்தையும், நிறைவேற்றுத்தளங்களையும் பிற பெரிய மற்றும் சிறிய விற்பணையாளர்களுக்கு (எ.கா.[[டார்கெட் கார்பிரேசன்]])<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/gp/seller/fba/fulfillment-by-amazon.html Fulfillment by Amazon] from the company's website</ref> தருகிறது.
 
Red Rock, Nevada, [[Chambersburg, Pennsylvania]], and [[Munster, Indiana]].<ref>[http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9130686 Amazon.com shuttering 3 U.S. distribution centers], a March 2009 ''[[கணினி உலகம்]]'' article</ref>
*[[ஐரோப்பா]]:
[[Imageபடிமம்:Amazon warehouse Glenrothes.jpg|thumb|அமேசான்.கோ.யூகே இடம், [[Glenrothes]].]]
:*[[பெட்பாட்சையர்]], இங்கிலாந்து: [[Marston Gate]]
:*[[இன்வெர்கிலைடு]], ஸ்காட்லேந்து: [[Gourock]]
:*[[பேய்சிங்கு]], சீனா
 
== பொருள்கள் ==
Amazon has steadily branched into retail sales of music CDs, [[VHS|videotapes]] and DVDs, software, [[consumer electronics]], kitchen items, tools, lawn and garden items, toys & games, baby products, apparel, sporting goods, gourmet food, [[jewelry]], watches, health and personal-care items, [[cosmetics|beauty products]], musical instruments, clothing, industrial & scientific supplies, [[groceries]], and more.
 
In 2008 Amazon expanded into [[film production]] and is currently funding the film ''[[The Stolen Child (film)|The Stolen Child]]'' with [[20th Century Fox]].<ref>[http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117981288.html?categoryid=13&cs=1 Amazon, Fox nursing 'Stolen Child'] ''[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]''.</ref>
 
=== Review and recommendation feature ===
{{see also|Recommender system}}
Amazon.com's customer reviews are monitored for all negative or indecent comments that are directed at anything, or anyone, but the product itself. In regards to the reviews lacking relative restrictions, [[Robert Spector]], who is the author of the book ''Amazon.com'', describes how "when publishers and authors asked Bezos why Amazon.com would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that Amazon.com was ‘taking a different approach...we want to make every book available – the good, the bad, and the ugly...to let truth loose’" (Spector 132).
Reviews for different media of the same product are grouped together (e.g., the review page for a particular film, whether on VHS, Blu-Ray, or DVD, will feature reviews from all three products). Currently, there is no way to only look at reviews for one version of a product.
 
== Website ==
The domain ''amazon.com'' attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a [[Compete.com]] survey. This was twice the numbers of ''[[walmart.com]]''.<ref>Compete.com: [http://siteanalytics.compete.com/amazon.com+walmart.com/?metric=uv SnapShot of amazon.com, walmart.com]. Retrieved April 12, 2008.</ref>
 
According to the Internet audience measurement website Compete.com, Amazon attracts approximately 50 million U.S. consumers to its website on a monthly basis.<ref>[http://siteanalytics.compete.com/amazon.com SnapShot of amazon.com (rank #11) - Compete<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
== Acquisitions and spinoffs ==
{{proseline|section}}
*In April 1998, Amazon bought the [[Internet Movie Database]] (IMDb).
*In August 2008, Amazon announced it had an agreement to purchase Victoria, B.C. based [[AbeBooks]], seller of new, used, out of print and rare books.<ref>[http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/business/story.html?id=450f0c09-4733-4488-96d5-d6ba05f06876 Amazon looks to fill niche with AbeBooks purchase]</ref> Later that month Amazon announced that it would acquire Seattle-based [[Shelfari]], a book-based social network site, for an undisclosed sum.<ref>http://www.informationweek.com/news/internet/retail/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=210200911</ref> As part of its acquisition of [[Abebooks]] Amazon also got an additional stake in Shelfari's competitor [[LibraryThing]], which AbeBooks had previously purchased a 40 percent stake in, and whole ownership of Bookfinder.com, Gojaba.com, and listing-management service [[FillZ]], all owned by [[AbeBooks]] at the time of acquisition.
 
== பொருள்கள் மற்றும் சேவைகள் ==
{{Refimprove|section|date=November 2008}}
{{proseline|section}}
:'''WebStore''': WebStore by Amazon allows businesses to create e-commerce websites using Amazon technology. Merchants can customize their sites using their own photos and branding. Sellers pay a commission of 7 percent, which includes credit-card processing fees and fraud protection, and a subscription fee of $59.95/month for an unlimited number of webstores and listings.
 
== Controversies ==
{{Criticism-section|date=April 2009}}
=== Trademark infringement ===
In 1999 the [[Amazon Bookstore Cooperative]] of Minneapolis, Minnesota sued Amazon.com for [[trademark infringement]]. The cooperative had been using the name "Amazon" since 1970, but reached an out-of-court agreement to share the name with the on-line retailer.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.internetnews.com/ec-news/article.php/232351|title=Amazon.com, Bookstore Settle Suit|work=[[InternetNews]]|date=1994-11-04|accessdate=2006-09-24}}</ref>
 
=== Patent use ===
The company has been controversial for its [[alleged]] use of [[patent]]s as a competitive hindrance. The "[[1-click]] patent"<ref>{{US patent reference|number=5960411|title=Method and system for placing a purchase order via a communications network|inventor=Hartman; Peri (Seattle, WA), [[Jeff Bezos|Bezos; Jeffrey P.]] (Seattle, WA), Kaphan; Shel (Seattle, WA), [[Joel Spiegel|Spiegel; Joel]] (Seattle, WA)|y=1997|m=09|d=12}}</ref> is perhaps the best-known example of this. Amazon's use of the one-click patent against competitor [[Barnes and Noble]]'s website led the [[Free Software Foundation]] to announce a [[boycott]] on Amazon in December 1999.<ref>{{cite news|work=[[Linux Today]]|url=http://linuxtoday.com/news_story.php3?ltsn=1999-12-22-001-05-NW-LF|title=Richard Stallman &ndash; Boycott Amazon!|date=1999-12-22|accessdate=2006-09-22}}</ref> The boycott was discontinued in September 2002.<ref>From the [[Free Software Foundation]] site: [http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/amazon.html amazon philosophy].</ref>
 
On February 22, 2000, the company was granted a patent covering an internet-based customer referral system, or what is commonly called an "affiliate program". Reaction was swift and negative. Industry leaders [[Tim O'Reilly]] and [[Charlie Jackson (software)|Charlie Jackson]] spoke out against the patent,<ref>[http://www.linuxjournal.com/node/5231/print Linux Journal] Talking Patents</ref> and O'Reilly published an open letter<ref>http://oreilly.com/amazon_patent/amazon_patent.comments.htm</ref> to Bezos protesting the 1-click patent and the affiliate program patent, and petitioning him to "avoid any attempts to limit the further development of internet commerce".
O'Reilly collected 10,000 signatures<ref>http://oreilly.com/amazon_patent/amazon_patent.comments.html 10,000 signatures</ref> with this petition. Bezos responded with his own open letter.<ref>[http://oreilly.com/amazon_patent/amazon_patent.comments.html An Open Letter to Jeff Bezos<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> The protest ended with O'Reilly and Bezos visiting [[Washington, D.C.]] to [[lobbying|lobby]] for [[patent reform]].
 
On February 25, 2003, the company was granted a patent titled "Method and system for conducting a discussion relating to an item on [[Internet forum|Internet discussion boardboards]]s".<ref>{{US patent reference|number=6525747|title=Method and system for conducting a discussion relating to an item|inventor=Bezos; Jeffrey P.|y=1999|m=08|d=02}}</ref>
 
On May 12, 2006, the [[ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா Patent and Trademark Office|USPTO]] ordered a re-examination<ref>[http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/kiwi-actor-v-amazoncom/2006/05/23/1148150224714.html smh.com.au] Kiwi actor v Amazon.com</ref> of the "One-Click" patent, based on a request filed by [[Peter Calveley]], who cited as prior art an earlier e-commerce patent and the [[Digicash]] [[electronic cash]] system.<ref>[http://igdmlgd.blogspot.com igdmlgd blogspot<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
Amazon acquired [[TextPayMe]], a [[mobile payment]] service in 2006. One of the assets acquired was a patent concerning an [[electronic payment]] service using a [[mobile device]].<ref name=TextPayMe>{{cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_200512/ai_n15918464 |title=Announcing the Launch of TextPayMe, a Revolutionary New Mobile Payment Solution}}</ref>
 
=== Canadian operations ===
Amazon has a Canadian site in both English and French, but is prevented from operating any headquarters, servers, fulfillment centers or call centers in Canada by that country's legal restrictions on foreign-owned booksellers. Instead, Amazon's Canadian site originates in the ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா, and Amazon has an agreement with [[Canada Post]] to handle distribution within Canada and for the use of the [[Crown corporation]]'s [[Mississauga]], [[Ontario]] shipping facility.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20020625/amazon_canada020625?s_name=&no_ads=|title=Amazon.ca debuts in Canada|work=[[CTV television network|CTV.ca]]|date=2002-06-25|accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref> The launch of Amazon.ca generated controversy in Canada. In 2002, the [[Canadian Booksellers Association]] and [[Indigo Books and Music]] sought a court ruling that Amazon's partnership with Canada Post represented an attempt to circumvent Canadian law,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,54387,00.html|title=Book Biz Takes on Amazon.ca|work=[[Wired (magazine)]]|date=2002-08-08|accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref> but the [[litigation]] was dropped in 2004.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.gowlings.com/resources/enewsletters/ipreportonline/Htmfiles/V2N03_20040924.html#b4|title=Gowlings IP Report Online: Canadian Booksellers Association Abandons Amazon.ca Case|work=[[Gowlings]]|date=2004-09-24|accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref>
 
=== வாடிக்கையாளர் சேவை ===
Customers can now submit written customer service requests, which are answered by e-mail, call a [[toll-free]] number, or use a [[click-to-call]] service to be connected by phone to an available service representative.<ref>[https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/contact-us/call-me.html/?skip=true Amazon.com Click-to-Call feature]</ref>
 
Before Amazon published its phone number on its website, numerous web pages existed solely to publish the Amazon.com customer service phone numbers. One such page received in excess of 23,000 visits in December 2004 alone.<ref>[http://clicheideas.com/amazon.htm "The Amazon.com Customer Service Phone Number"]</ref> Despite the perceived difficulty in reaching customer service by phone, Amazon.com "remains the leader among e-tailers" in customer satisfaction according to the [[American Customer Satisfaction Index]]'s fourth-quarter 2007 survey.<ref name="acsi-2007">[http://www.theacsi.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=177&Itemid=180 ACSI Quarterly Commentaries Q4 2007]</ref>
 
=== Labor relations ===
Amazon has opposed efforts by [[trade unions]] to organize in both the ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா and the United Kingdom.
 
Some employees of Amazon in the United Kingdom are required to submit to [[drug test]]s and can have their employment terminated on a positive test. However, the reliability of the tests has been called into question, as in the case of an Amazon worker who won a tribunal case against the company.<ref>http://www.greenocktelegraph.co.uk/article.php?sec=1&id=17371</ref>
 
=== ''The Humane Society of the ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா v. Amazon.com, Inc., et al.'' ===
Amazon at one time carried two cockfighting magazines and two dog fighting videos although the [[Humane Society of the ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா]] (HSUS) contends that the sale of these materials is a violation of [[U.S. Federal law]]. The Humane Society of the ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா has filed a lawsuit against Amazon.<ref>[http://www.hsus.org/in_the_courts/docket/amazon.html The HSUS v. Amazon.com, Inc., et al. (Animal fighting materials) | The Humane Society of the United States<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> A campaign to boycott Amazon purchases gained momentum in August 2007 after the much publicized [[Bad Newz Kennels dog fighting investigation|dog fighting case]] involving [[National Football League|NFL]] [[quarterback]] [[Michael Vick]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/27/business/media/27amazon.html | title=Humane Society has its sights on Amazon.com | publisher=[[The New York Times]] | accessdate = 2008-01-05}}</ref>
 
On May 21, 2008, Marburger Publishing agreed to settle with the Humane Society by requesting that Amazon stop offering their magazine ''The Game Cock''<!-- article text says Gamecock, but image clearly shows two words, from info too small to ever have Wikipedia article--> for subscription. The second magazine named in the Humane Society lawsuit, ''[[The Feathered Warrior]]'', remains available.<ref name="no-gamecock">{{cite news|title=Alleged Cockfight Mag To Stay Off Amazon |url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/05/21/business/main4113055.shtml |work=Associated Press |publisher=CBS News |date=2008-05-21 |accessdate=2008-06-16 }}</ref>
 
=== Reader reviews credibility ===
A 2004 glitch in Amazon.ca's review system revealed that many well-established authors were anonymously giving themselves glowing reviews, with some revealed to be anonymously giving "rival" authors terrible reviews. The glitch in the system was fixed and those reviews have since been removed or made non anonymous.<ref name="ca-review-bug">[http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/internet/02/14/glitch.reveals.ap/index.html CNN.com - Report: Glitch IDs anonymous Amazon reviewers - February 14, 2004<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref name="ca-review-bug-nyt">[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=technology&res=9C07E0DC1F3AF937A25751C0A9629C8B63 Amazon Glitch Unmasks War Of Reviewers]</ref>
 
=== Nazi T-shirts ===
An article published in the Czech weekly ''[[Tyden]]'' in January 2008 called attention to shirts sold by Amazon which were emblazoned with "I Love [[Heinrich Himmler]]" and "I Love [[Reinhard Heydrich]]," professing affection for the infamous Nazi officers and war criminals. Patricia Smith, a spokeswoman for Amazon, told ''Tyden'', "Our catalog contains millions of items. With such a large number, unexpected merchandise may get onto the Web." Smith told ''Tyden'' that Amazon does not intend to stop cooperating with Direct Collection, the producer of the T-shirts. Following pressure from the World Jewish Congress, Amazon announced that it had removed from its website the aforementioned T-shirts as well as "I love Hitler" T-shirts that they were selling for women and children. After the WJC intervention, other items such as a Hitler Youth Knife emblazoned with the Nazi slogan "Blood and Honor" were also removed from Amazon.com as well as a 1933 German SS Officer Dagger distributed by Knife-Kingdom.<ref name="nazi-thsirts">{{cite news|title=Amazon selling ‘I love Himmler’ T-shirts |url=http://jta.org/news/article/2008/01/22/106542/himmleramazon |work=JTA |publisher=JTA |date=2008-01-22 |accessdate=2008-01-22 }}</ref>
 
=== BookSurge ===
In March 2008, sales representatives of Amazon's BookSurge division started contacting publishers of [[print on demand]] titles to inform them that for Amazon to continue selling their POD-produced books, they would need to sign agreements with Amazon's own BookSurge POD company. Publishers were told that eventually, the only POD titles that Amazon would be selling would be those printed by their own company, BookSurge. Some publishers felt that this ultimatum amounted to monopoly abuse, and questioned the ethics of the move and its legality under [[anti-trust]] law.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.writersweekly.com/the_latest_from_angelahoycom/004597_03272008.html | title=Amazon.com Telling POD Publishers - Let BookSurge Print Your Books, or Else... | publisher=[[Writers Weekly]] | accessdate = 2008-03-31}}</ref>
 
=== Interfering with publishers' direct sales ===
In 2008, Amazon UK came under criticism for attempting to prevent publishers from direct selling at discount from their own websites. Amazon's argument was that they should be able to pay the publishers based on the lower prices offered on their websites, rather than on the full RRP.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.publishingnews.co.uk/pn/pno-news-display.asp?K=e2008040310393759&TAG=&CID=&PGE=&sg9t=cbd2a5be26893c7c10ff5b7ccc309f6f | title=Amazon threat on Direct Selling | publisher=[[Publishing News]] | accessdate = 2008-05-27}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article3671290.ece | title=Amazon furious after publishers undercut its book prices online|publisher=[[The Times]] | accessdate = 2008-05-27}}</ref>
 
=== Dispute with Hachette Livre UK ===
In June 2008 Amazon UK drew criticism in the British publishing community following their withdrawal from sale of key titles published by [[Hachette Livre]] UK. The withdrawal is apparently intended to put pressure on the publisher to provide levels of discount described by the trade as unreasonable. [[Curtis Brown (literary agents)|Curtis Brown]]'s managing director [[Jonathan Lloyd]] was quoted in ''[[The Bookseller]]'' magazine as saying: "I think the entire industry of publishers, authors and agents are 100% behind [Hachette]. Someone has to draw a line in the sand. Publishers have given 1% a year away to retailers, so where does it stop? Using authors as a financial football is disgraceful."<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.thebookseller.com/news/61034-agents-pick-sides-on-hachette-v-amazon.html | title=Agents pick sides on Hachette v Amazon=[[The Bookseller]] | accessdate = 2008-06-15}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.publishersmarketplace.com/lunch/free/archives/002176.html | title=Publisher's Lunch | accessdate = 2008-06-15}}</ref>
 
=== Lawsuits with the State of New York ===
In 2008 [[New York]] passed a law that would force online retailers to collect sales taxes on shipments to New York State residents.<ref name="New York">Hansell, Saul. [http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/01/amazon-sues-new-york-state-to-void-sales-tax-rules/ "Amazon Sues New York State to Void Sales Tax Rules"]. [[nytimes.com]]. May 1, 2008.</ref> Shortly after the law was signed, Amazon.com filed a complaint in the [[New York Supreme Court]] objecting to the law.<ref name="New York"/> The complaint wasn't based on whether in-State customers should pay tax, but was based on the long standing practice of it being the responsibility of the customer to report the sales tax (known as [[use tax]] in this case) and not that of the out of State businesses.<ref name="New York"/>
 
The lawsuit was tossed out of court in January 2009 when New York State Supreme Court Justice Eileen Bransten stated that "there is no basis upon which Amazon can prevail."<ref name="Here come the Judge">Sage, Alexandria and Edith Honan. [http://www.reuters.com/article/internetNews/idUSTRE50C5UN20090113 "NY Judge Tosses Amazon.com Lawsuit Over Sales Tax"]. [[reuters.com]]. January 13, 2009.</ref> Though Amazon.com argued that it had no substantial physical presence in New York, Judge Bransten felt otherwise, writing that " the Seattle-based retailer failed in its claim that its associates based in New York do not solicit business from customers in that state."<ref name="Here come the Judge"/> And wrote that the law was carefully crafted and did not unfairly target Amazon.com.<ref name="Here come the Judge"/>
 
=== Deranking of erotic, LGBT, feminist, progressive and sex-positive content ===
On [[April 12]], [[2009]], it was revealed via [[Twitter]] under the tag "#amazonfail", that some erotic, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, feminist and progressive books were being excluded from Amazon's sales rankings.<ref name='Seattle PI 2009-04-13 James'>
{{cite news | first=Andrea | last=James | title=Amazon under fire for perceived anti-gay policy | date=2009-04-13 | publisher=[[Seattle PI]] | url =http://blog.seattlepi.com/amazon/archives/166259.asp | accessdate = 2009-04-13 | language = }}</ref>
</ref>
 
=== Practice of banning customers ===
Amazon bans customers who it deems as having received too many refunds. The banned customer is unable to use any Amazon services, and if they have a Kindle, some functionality is lost.
<ref>[http://www.crn.com/retail/216500680 "Returning Product To Amazon Could Brick Your Kindle"]</ref><ref>[http://i.gizmodo.com/5214546/surprise-if-your-amazon-account-dies-it-takes-your-kindle-with-it "Surprise! If Your Amazon Account Dies, It Takes Your Kindle With It"]</ref><ref>[http://www.electronista.com/articles/09/04/16/amazon.bans.kindle.accts/ "Amazon banning Kindle accounts on return rate?"]</ref><ref>[http://consumerist.com/5213774/amazon-can-ban-you-from-your-kindle-account-whenever-it-likes "Amazon Can Ban You From Your Kindle Account Whenever It Likes"]</ref>
 
=== கட்டப்பட்ட வரிகள் ===
In April 2009, [[BusinessWeek]] magazine reported that Amazon.com was one of 25 US companies that paid the least US taxes. Amazon.com paid a 4.1 percent annual tax rate, far less than the standard 35 percent corporate rate, based on an analysis of the company's financial figures for 2005-2008. According to SEC filings, this rate was caused in part by lower tax rates for Amazon.com's international subsidiaries.
<ref>[http://images.businessweek.com/ss/09/04/0423_corporate_taxes/15.htm "US Companies That Paid The Least Taxes," BusinessWeek, April 23, 2009]</ref> Amazon.com did not respond to BusinessWeek's request for comment.
 
== Entrepreneurship by former employees ==
A number of companies have been started and funded by former Amazon.com employees.<ref name="gigaom_ceos">{{cite web| url = http://gigaom.com/2008/11/21/the-growing-ex-amazon-club-and-why-its-a-good-thing/| title = "The Growing Ex-Amazon Club and Why It's a Good Thing"|authorlink=Om Malik| last = Malik| first = Om| date= 2008-11-21| publisher=[[Gigaom]]}}</ref> This is despite a [[non-compete agreement]] Amazon employees must sign that prohibits starting a company with another Amazon employee.{{fact|date=January 2009}}
*[[Hulu]] is led by [[Jason Kilar]], a former SVP at Amazon.com.
*[[ZumoDrive]] was founded by [[David Zhao]], a former Amazon.com developer.
 
== See also ==
*[[Amazon Standard Identification Number]] (ASIN)
*[[Statistically Improbable Phrases]]: Amazon.com's phrase extraction technique for indexing books.
*[[eBay]]
 
== மேலும் படிக்க ==
*{{cite book|author=Robert Spector|title=amazon.com - Get Big Fast : Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World|publisher=[[Harper Collins Publishers]]|year=2000|isbn=0-06-662041-4}}
*{{cite book|author=[[Mike Daisey]]|title=21 Dog Years|publisher=[[Free Press]]|year=2002|isbn=0-7432-2580-5}}
[[பகுப்பு:இணைய வணிகம்]]
 
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