"மருத்துவம் அல்லது உடலியங்கியலுக்கான நோபல் பரிசு" பக்கத்தின் திருத்தங்களுக்கிடையேயான வேறுபாடு

}}
'''மருத்துவம் அல்லது உடலியங்கியலுக்கான நோபெல் பரிசு''' (''Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine'') என்பது வருடத்திற்கு ஒரு முறை வழங்கப்படும் [[நோபெல் பரிசு]]களுள் ஒன்றாகும். [[ஆல்ஃபிரட் நோபல்|ஆல்ஃபிரட் நோபெலால்]] நிறுவப்பட்ட இப்பரிசு சுவீடனில் உள்ள முக்கிய மருத்துவ மையமான [[கரோலின்ஸ்கா மையம்|கரோலின்ஸ்கா மையத்தால்]] வழங்கப்படுகிறது. இது மருத்துவத்துறையிலோ [[உடலியங்கியல்]] துறையிலோ குறிப்பிடத்தக்க கண்டுபிடிப்பினைச் செய்த ஒருவர் அல்லது பலருக்கு வழங்கப்படுகிறது.
 
==பரிசு பெற்றவர்களின் பட்டியல்==
{| class="wikitable"
|-
!ஆண்டு
! colspan=2|பரிசு பெற்றவர்{{ref|1|[A]}}
! நாடு{{ref|2|[B]}}
! காரணம்{{ref|3|[C]}}
|-
|1901
|[[Image:EmilVonBehring.jpg|75px]]
|[[Emil Adolf von Behring]]
|[[Germany]]
|"for his work on [[blood plasma|serum]] therapy, especially its application against [[diphtheria]], by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"<ref name="nobel-1901">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1901/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}
</ref>
|-
|1902
|[[Image:Ronald Ross2.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Ronald Ross]]
|[[United Kingdom]]
|"for his work on [[malaria]], by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"<ref name="nobel-1902">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1902/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}
</ref>
|-
|1903
|[[File:Niels ryberg.jpg|75px]]
|[[Niels Ryberg Finsen]]
|[[Denmark]]<br>([[Faroe Islands]])
|"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially [[lupus vulgaris]], with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"<ref name="nobel-1903">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1903/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}
</ref>
|-
|1904
|[[File:Ivan Pavlov (Nobel).png|75px]]
|[[Ivan Petrovich Pavlov]]
|[[Russia]]
|"in recognition of his work on the physiology of [[digestive system|digestion]], through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"<ref name="nobel-1904">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}
</ref>
|-
|1905
|[[File:RobertKoch cropped.jpg|75px]]
|[[Robert Koch]]
|[[Germany]]
|"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to [[tuberculosis]]"<ref name="nobel-1905">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1905/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1906
|[[File:Camillo Golgi (Nobel 1906).png|75px]]
|[[Camillo Golgi]]
|[[Italy]]
|rowspan=2|"in recognition of their work on the structure of the [[nervous system]]"<ref name="nobel-1906">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1906/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:Cajal-Restored.jpg|75px]]
| [[Santiago Ramón y Cajal]]
|[[Spain]]
|-
|1907
|[[File:AlphonseLaveran.jpg|75px]]
|[[Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran]]
|[[France]]
|"in recognition of his work on the role played by [[protozoa]] in causing diseases"<ref name="nobel-1907">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1907/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1908
|[[File:Ilya Mechnikov (Nobel 1908).png|75px]]
|[[Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov]]
|Russia
|rowspan=2|"in recognition of their work on [[immune system|immunity]]"<ref name="nobel-1908">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:Paul Ehrlich.png|75px]]
|[[Paul Ehrlich]]
|Germany
|-
|1909
|[[File:Emil Theodor Kocher.jpg|75px]]
|[[Emil Theodor Kocher]]
|[[Switzerland]]
|"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the [[thyroid gland]]"<ref name="nobel-1909">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1909/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1910
|[[File:Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927).jpg|75px]]
|[[Albrecht Kossel]]
|Germany
|"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of [[cell biology|cell chemistry]] made through his work on [[protein]]s, including the [[nucleic acid|nucleic substances]]"<ref name="nobel-1910">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1910/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1911
|[[File:Allvar Gullstrand.jpg|75px]]
|[[Allvar Gullstrand]]
|[[Sweden]]
|"for his work on the [[dioptrics]] of the [[human eye|eye]]"<ref name="nobel-1911">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1911/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1912
|[[File:Alexis Carrel 02.jpg|75px]]
|[[Alexis Carrel]]
|France
| "[for] his work on vascular [[surgical suture|suture]] and the [[Organ transplantation|transplantation]] of [[blood vessel]]s and [[Organ (anatomy)|organ]]s"<ref name="nobel-1912">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1912/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1913
|[[File:Charles Robert Richet.gif|75px]]
|[[Charles Richet]]
|France
|"[for] his work on [[anaphylaxis]]"<ref name="nobel-1913">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1913/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1914
|[[Image:Robert Barany.jpg|75px]]
|[[Robert Bárány]]
|[[Austria]]
|"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the [[vestibular apparatus]]"<ref name="nobel-1914">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1914/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1915
| colspan=4 rowspan=4 align=center|''Not awarded''
|-
|1916
|-
|1917
|-
|1918
|-
|1919
|[[File:Jules Bordet pi.png|75px]]
|[[Jules Bordet]]
|[[Belgium]]
|"for his discoveries relating to [[immune system|immunity]]"<ref name="nobel-1919">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1919/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1920
|[[File:August Krogh Bain 32006.jpg|75px]]
|[[August Krogh|Schack August Steenberg Krogh]]
|[[Denmark]]
|"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"<ref name="nobel-1920">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1920/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1921
| colspan=4 align=center|''Not awarded''
|-
|rowspan=2|1922
|[[Image:Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg|75px]]
|[[Archibald Hill|Archibald Vivian Hill]]
|United Kingdom
|"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the [[muscle]]"<ref name = "nobel-1922"/>
|-
|
|[[Otto Fritz Meyerhof]]
|Germany
|"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of [[oxygen]] and the [[metabolism]] of [[lactic acid]] in the muscle"<ref name="nobel-1922">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1922/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1923
|[[Image:Fredrick banting.jpg|75px]]
|[[Frederick Banting|Frederick Grant Banting]]
|[[Canada]]
|rowspan=2|"for the discovery of [[insulin]]"<ref name="nobel-1923">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1923/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:J.J.R. Macleod ca. 1928.png|75px]]
|[[John James Rickard Macleod]]
|Canada
|-
|1924
|[[Image:Willem Einthoven.jpg|75px]]
|[[Willem Einthoven]]
|{{nowrap|[[Netherlands|The Netherlands]]}}
|"for the discovery of the mechanism of the [[electrocardiogram]]"<ref name="nobel-1924">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1924/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1925
| colspan=4 align=center|''Not awarded''
|-
|1926
|[[File:J Fibiger.jpg|75px]]
|[[Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger]]
|[[Denmark]]
|"for his discovery of the [[Spiroptera carcinoma]]"<ref name="nobel-1926">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1926/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1927
|[[File:Julius Wagner-Jauregg.jpg|75px]]
|[[Julius Wagner-Jauregg]]
|Austria
|"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of [[malaria]] [[inoculation]] in the treatment of [[General paresis of the insane|dementia paralytica]]"<ref name="nobel-1927">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1927/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1928
|[[Image:Jules NICOLE.jpeg|75px]]
|[[Charles Nicolle|Charles Jules Henri Nicolle]]
|France
|"for his work on [[typhus]]"<ref name="nobel-1928">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1928/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1929
|[[File:Christiaan Eijkman.jpg|75px]]
|[[Christiaan Eijkman]]
|The Netherlands
|"for his discovery of the antineuritic [[vitamin]]"<ref name = "nobel-1929"/>
|-
|
|Sir [[Frederick Gowland Hopkins]]
|United Kingdom
|"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating [[vitamin]]s"<ref name="nobel-1929">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1929/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1930
|
|[[Karl Landsteiner]]
|[[Austria]]
|"for his discovery of human [[ABO blood group system|blood groups]]"<ref name="nobel-1930">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1930/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1931
|[[File:Otto Heinrich Warburg (cropped).jpg|75px]]
|[[Otto Heinrich Warburg]]
|Germany
|"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the [[cytochrome|respiratory enzyme]]"<ref name="nobel-1931">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1931/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1932
|[[File:Charles Scott Sherrington1.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Charles Scott Sherrington]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries regarding the functions of [[neuron]]s"<ref name="nobel-1932">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1932/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Edgar Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian|Edgar Douglas Adrian]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|1933
|[[Image:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg|75px]]
|[[Thomas Hunt Morgan]]
|[[United States]]
|"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the [[chromosome]] in [[heredity]]"<ref name="nobel-1933">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1933/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1934
|rowspan=3|
|[[George Whipple|George Hoyt Whipple]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning [[liver]] therapy in cases of [[anaemia]]"<ref name="nobel-1934">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1934/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[George Minot|George Richards Minot]]
|United States
|-
|[[William P. Murphy|William Parry Murphy]]
|United States
|-
|1935
|
|[[Hans Spemann]]
|Germany
|"for his discovery of the organizer effect in [[embryonic development]]"<ref name="nobel-1935">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1935/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1936
|
|Sir [[Henry Hallett Dale]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries relating to [[neurotransmitter|chemical transmission of nerve impulses]]"<ref name="nobel-1936">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1936/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Otto Loewi]]
|Austria
|-
|1937
|[[Image:GyorgyiNIH.jpg|75px]]
|[[Albert Szent-Györgyi|Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt]]
|[[Hungary]]
|"for his discoveries in connection with the [[cellular respiration|biological combustion processes]], with special reference to [[vitamin C]] and the catalysis of [[fumaric acid]]"<ref name="nobel-1937">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1937/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1938
|
|[[Corneille Heymans|Corneille Jean François Heymans]]
|Belgium
|"for the discovery of the role played by the [[Paranasal sinuses|sinus]] and [[aorta|aortic mechanisms]] in the regulation of [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]]"<ref name="nobel-1938">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1938/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1939
|
|[[Gerhard Domagk]]
|Germany
|"for the discovery of the [[antibacterial]] effects of [[prontosil]]"<ref name="nobel-1939">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1939/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1940
| colspan=4 rowspan=3 align=center|''Not awarded''
|-
|1941
|-
|1942
|-
|rowspan=2|1943
|
|[[Henrik Dam|Carl Peter Henrik Dam]]
|Denmark
|"for his discovery of [[vitamin K]]"<ref name = "nobel-1943"/>
|-
|
|[[Edward Adelbert Doisy]]
|United States
|"for his discovery of the chemical nature of [[vitamin K]]"<ref name="nobel-1943">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1943/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1944
|rowspan=2|
|[[Joseph Erlanger]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single [[nerve fibre]]s"<ref name="nobel-1944">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1944/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Herbert Spencer Gasser]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1945
|[[File:Alexander-fleming.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Alexander Fleming]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=3|"for the discovery of [[penicillin]] and its curative effect in various [[infectious disease]]s"<ref name="nobel-1945">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|Sir [[Ernst Boris Chain]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|[[File:Howard Florey.png|75px]]
|[[Howard Florey|Howard Walter Florey]]
|[[Australia]]
|-
|1946
|
|[[Hermann Joseph Muller]]
|[[United States]]
|"for the discovery of the production of [[mutation]]s by means of [[X-ray]] [[irradiation]]"<ref name="nobel-1946">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1946/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1947
|[[File:Carl Ferdinand Cori.jpg|75px]]
|[[Carl Ferdinand Cori]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of [[glycogen]]"<ref name = "nobel-1947"/>
|-
|[[File:Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg|75px]]
|[[Gerty Theresa Cori|Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz]]
| United States
|-
|[[File:Bernado Houssay.JPG|75px]]
|[[Bernardo Houssay|Bernardo Alberto Houssay]]
|[[Argentina]]
|"for his discovery of the part played by the [[hormone]] of the [[anterior pituitary]] lobe in the metabolism of [[glucose|sugar]]"<ref name="nobel-1947">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1947/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1948
|
|[[Paul Hermann Müller]]
|Switzerland
|"for his discovery of the high efficiency of [[DDT]] as a contact [[insecticide|poison against several arthropods]]"<ref name="nobel-1948">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1948/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1949
|
|[[Walter Rudolf Hess]]
|Switzerland
|"for his discovery of the functional organization of the [[midbrain|interbrain]] as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"<ref name = "nobel-1949"/>
|-
|[[File:Moniz.jpg|75px]]
|[[António Egas Moniz|António Caetano Egas Moniz]]
|[[Portugal]]
|"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy ([[lobotomy]]) in certain psychoses"<ref name="nobel-1949">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1949/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1950
|
|[[Philip Showalter Hench]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries relating to the [[hormone]]s of the [[adrenal cortex]], their structure and biological effects"<ref name="nobel-1950">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1950/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Edward Calvin Kendall]]
|United States
|-
|
|[[Tadeus Reichstein|Tadeusz Reichstein]]
|Switzerland
|-
|1951
|
|[[Max Theiler]]
|[[South Africa|Union of South Africa]]
|"for his discoveries concerning [[yellow fever]] and how to combat it"<ref name="nobel-1951">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1951/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|1952
|[[Image:Selman Waksman NYWTS.jpg|75px]]
|[[Selman Waksman|Selman Abraham Waksman]]
|United States
|"for his discovery of [[streptomycin]], the first [[antibiotic]] effective against [[tuberculosis]]"<ref name="nobel-1952">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1952/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1953
|
|Sir [[Hans Adolf Krebs]]
|United Kingdom
|"for his discovery of the [[citric acid cycle]]"<ref name = "nobel-1953"/>
|-
|[[File:Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpg|75px]]
|[[Fritz Albert Lipmann]]
|United States
|"for his discovery of [[coenzyme A|co-enzyme A]] and its importance for intermediary metabolism"<ref name="nobel-1953">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1953/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1954
|rowspan=3|
|[[John Franklin Enders]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discovery of the ability of [[poliomyelitis]] [[virus]]es to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"<ref name="nobel-1954">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Frederick Chapman Robbins]]
|United States
|-
|[[Thomas Huckle Weller]]
|United States
|-
|1955
|
|[[Hugo Theorell|Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell]]
|Sweden
|"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"<ref name="nobel-1955">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1955/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1956
|
|[[André Frédéric Cournand]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning [[heart catheterization]] and pathological changes in the [[circulatory system]]"<ref name="nobel-1956">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1956/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Werner Forssmann]]
|[[West Germany|Federal Republic of Germany]]
|-
|
|[[Dickinson W. Richards]]
|United States
|-
|1957
|
|[[Daniel Bovet]]
|[[Italy]]
|"for his discoveries relating to [[antihistamine|synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances]], and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"<ref name="nobel-1957">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1957/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1958
|
|[[George Wells Beadle]]
|United States
|rowspan=2| "for their discovery that [[gene]]s act by regulating definite chemical events"<ref name = "nobel-1958"/>
|-
|
|[[Edward Lawrie Tatum]]
|United States
|-
|[[File:Joshua Lederberg.jpg|75px]]
|[[Joshua Lederberg]]
|United States
|"for his discoveries concerning [[genetic recombination]] and the organization of the [[gene|genetic material]] of [[bacteria]]"<ref name="nobel-1958">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1958/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1959
|[[File:Arthur Kornberg.jpg|75px]]
|[[Arthur Kornberg]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of [[ribonucleic acid]] and [[deoxyribonucleic acid]]"<ref name="nobel-1959">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1959/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:Severo_Ochoa.jpg|75px]]
|[[Severo Ochoa]]
|Spain<br>United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1960
|[[File:Burnet 2jpg.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Frank Macfarlane Burnet]]
|Australia
|rowspan=2|"for discovery of acquired [[immune tolerance|immunological tolerance]]"<ref name="nobel-1960">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1960/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|Sir [[Peter Medawar|Peter Brian Medawar]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|1961
|
|[[Georg von Békésy]]
|United States
|"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the [[cochlea]]"<ref name="nobel-1961">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1961/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1962
|[[Image:Francis Crick.png|75px]]
| [[Francis Crick|Francis Harry Compton Crick]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of [[nucleic acid]]s and its significance for information transfer in living material"<ref name="nobel-1962">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Image:JamesWatson.png|75px]]
|[[James D. Watson|James Dewey Watson]]
|United States
|-
|
|[[Maurice Wilkins|Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins]]
|[[New Zealand]]<br>United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=3|1963
|
|Sir [[John Carew Eccles]]
|Australia
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the [[nerve]] [[cell membrane]]"<ref name="nobel-1963">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1963/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|Sir [[Alan Lloyd Hodgkin]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|[[Image:Andrew huxley trinity.png|75px]]
|Sir [[Andrew Huxley|Andrew Fielding Huxley]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=2|1964
|rowspan=2|
|[[Konrad Emil Bloch|Konrad Bloch]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the [[cholesterol]] and [[fatty acid]] [[metabolism]]"<ref name="nobel-1964">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1964/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen|Feodor Lynen]]
|Federal Republic of Germany
|-
|rowspan=3|1965
|rowspan=3|
|[[François Jacob]]
|France
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning [[Transcription (genetics)|genetic control of enzyme]] and [[provirus|virus synthesis]]"<ref name="nobel-1965">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1965/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[André Michel Lwoff|André Lwoff]]
|France
|-
|[[Jacques Monod]]
|France
|-
|rowspan=2|1966
|rowspan=2|
|[[Francis Peyton Rous|Peyton Rous]]
|United States
|"for his discovery of [[tumour]]-inducing [[virus]]es"<ref name = "nobel-1966"/>
|-
|[[Charles Brenton Huggins]]
|United States
|"for his discoveries concerning [[Hormonal therapy (oncology)|hormonal treatment]] of [[prostatic cancer]]"<ref name="nobel-1966">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1966/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1967
|rowspan=3|
|[[Ragnar Granit]]
|Finland/Sweden
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the [[human eye|eye]]"<ref name="nobel-1967">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1967/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Haldan Keffer Hartline]]
|United States
|-
|[[George Wald]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1968
|
|[[Robert W. Holley]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their interpretation of the [[genetic code]] and its function in [[Protein biosynthesis|protein synthesis]]"<ref name="nobel-1968">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1968/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Har Gobind Khorana]]
|India
|-
|[[Image:MNirenberg.jpg|75px]]
|[[Marshall Warren Nirenberg|Marshall W. Nirenberg]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1969
|[[Image:Max Delbruck.jpg|75px]]
|[[Max Delbrück]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of [[virus]]es"<ref name="nobel-1969">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1969/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Alfred Hershey|Alfred D. Hershey]]
|United States
|-
|
|[[Salvador Luria|Salvador E. Luria]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1970
|[[File:Axelrod01.jpg|75px]]
|[[Julius Axelrod]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the humoral [[neurotransmitter|transmittors in the nerve terminals]] and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"<ref name="nobel-1970">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1970/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Ulf von Euler]]
|Sweden
|-
|
|Sir [[Bernard Katz]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|1971
|
|[[Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr.|Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.]]
|United States
|"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of [[hormone]]s"<ref name="nobel-1971">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1971/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|1972
|rowspan=2|
|[[Gerald Edelman|Gerald M. Edelman]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of [[antibodies]]"<ref name="nobel-1972">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1972/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Rodney Robert Porter|Rodney R. Porter]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=3|1973
|
|[[Karl von Frisch]]
|Federal Republic of Germany
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"<ref name="nobel-1973">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1973/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=2|[[Image:Lorenz and Tinbergen1.jpg|75px|Nikolaas Tinbergen (left), Konrad Lorenz (right)]]
|[[Konrad Lorenz]]
|Austria
|-
|[[Nikolaas Tinbergen]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=3|1974
|rowspan=3|
|[[Albert Claude]]
|[[Belgium]]
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the [[organelle|structural and functional organization of the cell]]"<ref name="nobel-1974">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1974/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Christian de Duve]]
|Belgium
|-
|[[George Emil Palade|George E. Palade]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1975
|[[Image:DavidBaltimore2008.JPG|75px]]
|[[David Baltimore]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between [[tumor virus|tumour virus]]es and the genetic material of the cell"<ref name="nobel-1975">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1975/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Renato Dulbecco]]
|Italy<br>United States
|-
|
|[[Howard Martin Temin]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1976
|
|[[Baruch Samuel Blumberg|Baruch S. Blumberg]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of [[infectious disease]]s"<ref name="nobel-1976">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1976/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Daniel Carleton Gajdusek|D. Carleton Gajdusek]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1977
|
|[[Roger Guillemin]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the [[peptide hormone]] production of the [[brain]]"<ref name = "nobel-1977"/>
|-
|[[File:Schally portrait.jpg|75px]]
|[[Andrew Schally|Andrew V. Schally]]
|United States
|-
|
|[[Rosalyn Sussman Yalow|Rosalyn Yalow]]
|United States
|"for the development of [[radioimmunoassay]]s of [[peptide hormone]]s"<ref name="nobel-1977">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1977/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1978
|[[File:Werner Arber 2008.jpg|75px]]
|[[Werner Arber]]
|Switzerland
|rowspan=3|"for the discovery of [[restriction enzyme]]s and their application to problems of [[molecular genetics]]"<ref name="nobel-1978">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1978/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Daniel Nathans]]
|United States
|-
|[[Image:Hamilton Smith.jpg|75px]]
|[[Hamilton O. Smith]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1979
|
|[[Allan McLeod Cormack|Allan M. Cormack]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for the development of [[computer assisted tomography]]"<ref name="nobel-1979">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1979/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|Sir [[Godfrey Hounsfield|Godfrey N. Hounsfield]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=3|1980
|
|[[Baruj Benacerraf]]
|Venezuela
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined [[major histocompatibility complex|structures on the cell surface]] that regulate [[immune system|immunological reactions]]"<ref name="nobel-1980">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1980/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Jean Dausset]]
|France
|-
|
|[[George Davis Snell|George D. Snell]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1981
|
|[[Roger Wolcott Sperry|Roger W. Sperry]]
|United States
|"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the [[cerebral hemisphere]]s"<ref name = "nobel-1981"/>
|-
|
|[[David H. Hubel]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the [[visual system]]"<ref name="nobel-1981">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1981/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Torsten N. Wiesel]]
|Sweden
|-
|rowspan=3|1982
|
|[[Sune Bergström|Sune K. Bergström]]
|Sweden
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning [[prostaglandin]]s and related biologically active substances"<ref name="nobel-1982">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1982/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Bengt I. Samuelsson]]
|Sweden
|-
|
|Sir [[John Robert Vane|John R. Vane]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|1983
|[[Image:Barbara McClintock at C.S.H. 1947.jpg|75px]]
|[[Barbara McClintock]]
|United States
| "for her discovery of [[transposon|mobile genetic elements]]"<ref name="nobel-1983">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1983/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1984
|
|[[Niels Kaj Jerne|Niels K. Jerne]]
|Denmark
|rowspan=3|"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the [[immune system]] and the discovery of the principle for production of [[monoclonal antibodies]]"<ref name="nobel-1984">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1984/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Georges J. F. Köhler|Georges J.F. Köhler]]
|Federal Republic of Germany
|-
|
|[[César Milstein]]
|[[Argentina]]<br>United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=2|1985
|[[Image:Mike Brown 2003.jpg|75px]]
|[[Michael Stuart Brown|Michael S. Brown]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of [[cholesterol]] [[metabolism]]"<ref name="nobel-1985">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1985/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Image:Joe Goldstein.JPG|75px]]
|[[Joseph L. Goldstein]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1986
|[[Image:Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg|75px]]
|[[Stanley Cohen (biochemist)|Stanley Cohen]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries of [[growth factor]]s"<ref name="nobel-1986">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1986/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Rita Levi-Montalcini]]
|Italy<br>United States
|-
|1987
|
|[[Susumu Tonegawa]]
|[[Japan]]
|"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of [[antibody]] diversity"<ref name="nobel-1987">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1987/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1988
|rowspan=3|
|Sir [[James W. Black]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries of important principles for [[Pharmacology|drug treatment]]"<ref name="nobel-1988">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1988/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Gertrude B. Elion]]
|United States
|-
|[[George H. Hitchings]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1989
|rowspan=2|
|[[J. Michael Bishop]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the cellular origin of [[retrovirus|retroviral]] [[oncogene]]s"<ref name="nobel-1989">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1989/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Harold E. Varmus]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1990
|rowspan=2|
|[[Joseph Murray|Joseph E. Murray]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning [[Organ transplantation|organ and cell transplantation]] in the treatment of human disease"<ref name="nobel-1990">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1990/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[E. Donnall Thomas]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1991
|[[Image:Erwin neher 2007 lindau.jpg|75px]]
|[[Erwin Neher]]
|Federal Republic of Germany
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the function of single [[ion channel]]s in cells"<ref name="nobel-1991">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1991/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Bert Sakmann]]
|Federal Republic of Germany
|-
|rowspan=2|1992
|rowspan=2|
|[[Edmond H. Fischer]]
|Switzerland<br>United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning reversible [[protein]] [[phosphorylation]] as a biological regulatory mechanism"<ref name="nobel-1992">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1992/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Edwin G. Krebs]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1993
|rowspan=2|
|Sir [[Richard J. Roberts]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries of [[split gene]]s"<ref name="nobel-1993">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1993/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Phillip Allen Sharp|Phillip A. Sharp]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1994
|rowspan=2|
|[[Alfred G. Gilman]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of [[G-protein]]s and the role of these proteins in [[signal transduction]] in cells"<ref name="nobel-1994">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1994/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Martin Rodbell]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|1995
|
|[[Edward B. Lewis]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early [[embryonic development]]"<ref name="nobel-1995">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1995/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Image:Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard mg 4383.jpg|75px]]
|[[Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard]]
|Federal Republic of Germany
|-
|[[Image:Eric F. Wieschaus.jpg|75px]]
|[[Eric F. Wieschaus]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|1996
|rowspan=2|
|[[Peter C. Doherty]]
|Australia
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the [[major histocompatibility complex|cell mediated immune defence]]"<ref name="nobel-1996">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1996/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Rolf M. Zinkernagel]]
|Switzerland
|-
|1997
|
| [[Stanley B. Prusiner]]
|United States
|"for his discovery of [[Prion]]s - a new biological principle of infection"<ref name="nobel-1997">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1997/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|1998
|
|[[Robert F. Furchgott]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning [[nitric oxide]] as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"<ref name="nobel-1998">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1998/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Louis J. Ignarro]]
|United States
|-
|[[Image:Ferid Murad.jpg|75px]]
|[[Ferid Murad]]
|United States
|-
|1999
|[[File:Gunter Blobel 2008 1.JPG|75px]]
|[[Günter Blobel]]
|United States
|"for the discovery that [[protein]]s have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"<ref name="nobel-1999">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1999/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|rowspan=3|2000
|rowspan=2|
|[[Arvid Carlsson]]
|Sweden
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning [[signal transduction]] in the [[nervous system]]"<ref name="nobel-2000">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2000/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Paul Greengard]]
|United States
|-
|[[Image:Eric Richard Kandel.jpg|75px]]
|[[Eric Kandel|Eric R. Kandel]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|2001
|
|[[Leland H. Hartwell]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries of key regulators of the [[cell cycle]]"<ref name="nobel-2001">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2001/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Image:Tim hunt.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Tim Hunt]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|[[Image:Plos nurse.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Paul Nurse|Paul M. Nurse]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=3|2002
|
|[[Sydney Brenner]]
|United Kingdom
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and [[apoptosis|programmed cell death]]'"<ref name="nobel-2002">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2002/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[H. Robert Horvitz]]
|United States
|-
|[[Image:Plos sulston.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[John E. Sulston]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=2|2003
|
|[[Paul Lauterbur]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning [[magnetic resonance imaging]]"<ref name="nobel-2003">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2003/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[Image:Peter Mansfield Leipzig.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Peter Mansfield]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|rowspan=2|2004
|
|[[Richard Axel]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries of [[odorant receptor]]s and the organization of the [[olfactory system]]"<ref name="nobel-2004">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2004/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:LindaBuck cropped 1.jpg|75px]]
|[[Linda B. Buck]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=2|2005
|[[File:marshall_2008.JPG|75px]]
|[[Barry Marshall|Barry J. Marshall]]
|Australia
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of the bacterium ''[[Helicobacter pylori]]'' and its role in [[gastritis]] and [[peptic ulcer disease]]"<ref name="nobel-2005">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:Robin Warren.jpg|75px]]
|[[Robin Warren|J. Robin Warren]]
|Australia
|-
|rowspan=2|2006
|[[File:Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpg|75px]]
|[[Andrew Fire|Andrew Z. Fire]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of [[RNA interference]] - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"<ref name="nobel-2006">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2006/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
| accessdate = 2007-07-28
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|
|[[Craig Mello|Craig C. Mello]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|2007
|[[Image:Mario Capecchi UTHSCSA.JPG|75px]]
|[[Mario Capecchi|Mario R. Capecchi]]
|United States
|rowspan=3|"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of [[embryonic stem cell]]s."<ref name="nobel-2007">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2007/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
| accessdate = 2007-10-08
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|[[File:Martin_Evans_Nobel_Prize.jpg|75px]]
|Sir [[Martin Evans|Martin J. Evans]]
|United Kingdom
|-
|
|[[Oliver Smithies]]
|United States
|-
|rowspan=3|2008
|[[File:Harald zur Hausen-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-6.jpg|75px]]
|[[Harald zur Hausen]]
|Germany
|"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing [[cervical cancer]]"<ref name="nobel-2008">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2008/index.html
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
| accessdate = 2008-10-06
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref><br />
|-
|[[File:Françoise Barré-Sinoussi-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-1.jpg|75px]]
|[[Françoise Barré-Sinoussi]]
|France
|rowspan=2|"for their discovery of [[human immunodeficiency virus]]"<ref name="nobel-2008"/>
|-
|[[Image:LucMontagnier1995 065.jpg|75px]]
|[[Luc Montagnier]]
|France
|-
|rowspan=3|2009
|[[Image:Elizabeth Blackburn 2009-01.JPG|75px]]
||[[Elizabeth H. Blackburn]]
|United States<br>Australia
|rowspan=3|"for the discovery of how [[chromosome]]s are protected by [[telomere]]s and the [[enzyme]] [[telomerase]]"<ref name="nobel-2009">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2009/
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
| accessdate = 2009-10-05
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref><br />
|-
|[[Image:Carol_Greider_2009-01.JPG|75px]]
|[[Carol W. Greider]]
|United States
|-
|[[Image:JSzostak.jpg|75px]]
|[[Jack W. Szostak]]
|United States
|-
|2010
|
||Sir [[Robert G. Edwards]]
|United Kingdom
|"for the development of [[in vitro fertilization]]"<ref name="nobel-2010">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2010/
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
| accessdate = 2010-10-04
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref>
|-
|-
|rowspan=4|2011
|-
|
||[[Bruce Beutler|Bruce A. Beutler]]
|United States
|rowspan=2|"for their discoveries concerning the activation of [[Adaptive immune system|innate immunity]]"<ref name="nobel-2011">
{{cite web
| url = http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2011/
| title = The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
| accessdate = 2011-10-03
| publisher = Nobel Foundation
}}</ref><br />
|-
|
|[[Jules A. Hoffmann]]
|France
|-
|
|[[Ralph M. Steinman]]
|Canada<br>United States
|rowspan=1|"for his discovery of the [[dendritic cell]] and its role in [[adaptive immunity]]"<ref name="nobel-2011" /><br/><small> (awarded posthumously)</small><ref>{{cite web|title=Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/press/nobelfoundation/press_releases/2011/steinman.html|accessdate=4 October 2011|publisher=[[The Nobel Foundation]]|date=3 October 2011}}</ref>
|-
|}
 
==மேற்கோள்கள்==
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