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352

"Extract on "SEMMAN" from Castes and Tribes of Southern India, by EDGAR THURSTON, C.I.E., Superintendent, Madras Govern ment Museum; Correspondant Etranger, Societed Anthropologie, de Paris; Socio Corrispondante, Societa Romana di Anthropologia, Assisted by K. RANGACHARI, M.A., of the Madras Government Museum, Volume VI- P to S, Government Press, Madras 1909 pages 359-360.

SEMMAN: The Semmans are described, in the Madras Census Report, 1891, as "an insignificant caste of Tamil leather-workers, found only in the districts of Madura and Tinnevelly (and in the Pudukottai State). Though they have returned tailor and lime burner as their occupations, the original occupation was undoubt edly leather-work. In the Tamil dictionaries Semman is explained as a leather-worker, and a few of them, living in out-of-the way vil lages, have returned shoe-making as their occupation. The Sem mans are, in fact, a sub-division of the Paraiyans, and they must have been the original leather-workers of the Tamil tribes. The immigrant Chakkiliyans have, however, now taken their place". The Semmans are described, in the Madura Manual, as burning and selling lime for building purposes. In the Census Report, 1901, the caste is said to have "two hypergamous sub-divisions, Tondaman and Tolmestri, and men of the former take wives from the latter, but men of the latter may not marry girls of the former".

Girls are married after puberty, and divorce and remarriage are freely allowed. As the caste is a polluting one, the members thereof are not allowed to use village wells, or enter caste Hindu temples. The caste title is Mestri.

செம்மான்தொகு

352

"Extract on "SEMMAN" from Castes and Tribes of Southern India, by EDGAR THURSTON, C.I.E., Superintendent, Madras Govern ment Museum; Correspondant Etranger, Societed Anthropologie, de Paris; Socio Corrispondante, Societa Romana di Anthropologia, Assisted by K. RANGACHARI, M.A., of the Madras Government Museum, Volume VI- P to S, Government Press, Madras 1909 pages 359-360.

SEMMAN: The Semmans are described, in the Madras Census Report, 1891, as "an insignificant caste of Tamil leather-workers, found only in the districts of Madura and Tinnevelly (and in the Pudukottai State). Though they have returned tailor and lime burner as their occupations, the original occupation was undoubt edly leather-work. In the Tamil dictionaries Semman is explained as a leather-worker, and a few of them, living in out-of-the way vil lages, have returned shoe-making as their occupation. The Sem mans are, in fact, a sub-division of the Paraiyans, and they must have been the original leather-workers of the Tamil tribes. The immigrant Chakkiliyans have, however, now taken their place". The Semmans are described, in the Madura Manual, as burning and selling lime for building purposes. In the Census Report, 1901, the caste is said to have "two hypergamous sub-divisions, Tondaman and Tolmestri, and men of the former take wives from the latter, but men of the latter may not marry girls of the former".

Girls are married after puberty, and divorce and remarriage are freely allowed. As the caste is a polluting one, the members thereof are not allowed to use village wells, or enter caste Hindu temples. The caste title is Mestri. Sutharsana paraiyanar (பேச்சு) 08:24, 9 ஆகத்து 2022 (UTC)

செம்மான்தொகு

செம்மான் தமிழ் நாடு பட்டியல் இனத்தவர் பறையர் உட்பிரிவு


SEMMAN

I Name, Identity, Origin and History:

In the whole of India, Semman is a Scheduled Caste only in the Madras State as it existed prior to the States Reorganisation in 1956 (i.e.) throughout the present Madras State except Kanyakumari District and Shencottah taluk of Tirunelveli District, Malabar Dis trict of Kerala State, Kollegal taluk and South Canara district of Mysore State (Census of India, Paper No. 2, 1960, Registrar Gene ral, India, New Delhi, pp. 88 and 89). In these parts they were classified as Depressed Class in 1921 and 1931 Censuses, Scheduled Caste according to the "Government of India (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1936", "Constitution (Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tri bes), Order, 1950" and "Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Lists Modification Order, 1956". Tolmestri, Tondaman and Semma ravan are considered to be synonyms for Semman (Census of India, 1961, Volume IX Madras, Part V. A(i), Appendix I, Page 438).

In his Madras Census report of 1891 Steward observes that "Semmans are an insignificant caste of Tamil leather workers found only in the districts of Madura and Tinnevely. The Semmans are, in fact, a sub-division of the Paraiyans and they must have been the original leather-workers of the Tamil tribes. The immigrant Chakki liyans have, however, now taken their place."

In 1914, Sri M. Srinivasa Ayyangar has written that "The Semman is another important sub-division of the Paraiyas, whose existence is almost unknown outside the districts of Madura and Tirunelveli. It was once a numerous caste of Tamil leather workers. (புகன்ற தோற்றுன்னர் செம்மான்). Since the immigration of the Telugu and Canarese Madigas or Chakkiliyans, some time after the fifteenth or sixteenth century, the Semmans have almost entirely given up their traditional occupation and adopted, like the Panans, menial services in villages and tailoring and lime selling in towns". ("Tamil Studies" N. Srinivasa Ayyangar M.A., 1914, p. 85). Tamil term Semman ( i LD IT ir) means leather worker. It could therefore be reasonably inferred that this caste derives its name from its traditional occupation of leather working.

The present study was made of the leather working section of Semmans in Palayamcottah, a municipal town of Tirunelveli District. Semmans were living there on a piece of Government land

337

35-5R. G India/72 Sutharsana paraiyanar (பேச்சு) 08:25, 9 ஆகத்து 2022 (UTC)

செம்மான்தொகு

செம்மான் பறையர் உட்பிரிவு

REPORT

ON THE

CENSUS OF BRITISH INDIA,

TAKEN ON THE

17th February 1881.

VOL. III.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, PRINTERS TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

1883. Sutharsana paraiyanar (பேச்சு) 08:27, 9 ஆகத்து 2022 (UTC)

செம்மான்தொகு

352

"Extract on "SEMMAN" from Castes and Tribes of Southern India, by EDGAR THURSTON, C.I.E., Superintendent, Madras Govern ment Museum; Correspondant Etranger, Societed Anthropologie, de Paris; Socio Corrispondante, Societa Romana di Anthropologia, Assisted by K. RANGACHARI, M.A., of the Madras Government Museum, Volume VI- P to S, Government Press, Madras 1909 pages 359-360.

SEMMAN: The Semmans are described, in the Madras Census Report, 1891, as "an insignificant caste of Tamil leather-workers, found only in the districts of Madura and Tinnevelly (and in the Pudukottai State). Though they have returned tailor and lime burner as their occupations, the original occupation was undoubt edly leather-work. In the Tamil dictionaries Semman is explained as a leather-worker, and a few of them, living in out-of-the way vil lages, have returned shoe-making as their occupation. The Sem mans are, in fact, a sub-division of the Paraiyans, and they must have been the original leather-workers of the Tamil tribes. The immigrant Chakkiliyans have, however, now taken their place". The Semmans are described, in the Madura Manual, as burning and selling lime for building purposes. In the Census Report, 1901, the caste is said to have "two hypergamous sub-divisions, Tondaman and Tolmestri, and men of the former take wives from the latter, but men of the latter may not marry girls of the former".

Girls are married after puberty, and divorce and remarriage are freely allowed. As the caste is a polluting one, the members thereof are not allowed to use village wells, or enter caste Hindu temples. The caste title is Mestri. Sutharsana paraiyanar (பேச்சு) 13:52, 9 ஆகத்து 2022 (UTC)

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