செல்யூக் பேரரசு: திருத்தங்களுக்கு இடையிலான வேறுபாடு

52 பைட்டுகள் சேர்க்கப்பட்டது ,  11 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்
சி
உஇ
சி (உஇ)
[{{Infobox Former Country
|conventional_long_name = <br>دولت سلجوقیان<br>Dawlat-i Saljūqiān<br>செல்யூக் பேரரசு<br> Büyük Selçuklu Devleti<br> (துருக்கிய பேரரசு)
|common_name = மாபெரும் செல்யூக்கர்கள்
* Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).</ref> செல்யூக் பேரரசின் ஆட்சியின் கட்டுப்பாட்டில் கிழக்கே [[இந்துகுஷ்]] முதல் [[அனத்தோலியா]] வரையும் [[மத்திய ஆசியா]]விலிருந்து [[பாரசீக வளைகுடா]]வரையும் பரந்த நிலப்பரப்பு இருந்தது. தங்கள் உறைவிடமான [[ஏரல் கடல்]] பகுதியிலிருந்து முதலில் கோராசன் எனப்படும் வடக்கு ஈரான் பகுதியைப் பிடித்து பின்னர் பாரசீகத்தை ஆட்கொண்டு இறுதியில் கிழக்கு அனத்தோலியா வரை முன்னேறினார்கள்.
 
செல்யூக் வம்சத்தின் செல்யூக் பெக் நிறுவ முயன்ற செல்யூக் பேரரசு அவரது மகன் துக்ருல் பெக் காலத்தில் 1037ஆம் ஆண்டு அமைக்கப்பட்டது.செல்யூக்கினர் பிளவுபட்டிருந்த கிழக்கு இசுலாமிய உலகை ஒற்றுமைப்படுத்தி [[முதலாம் சிலுவைப் போர்|முதலாம்]] மற்றும் [[இரண்டாம் சிலுவைப் போர்|இரண்டாம்]] [[சிலுவைப் போர்கள்|சிலுவைப் போர்களில்]] முக்கியப் பங்காற்றினர். மிகவும் பாரசீக தாக்கம் கொண்ட <ref name="Shahrbanu"/><ref name="Josef W. Meri 2005, p. 399"/><ref name="Michael Mandelbaum 1994 p. 79"/><ref name="Jonathan Dewald 2004, p. 24"/> பண்பாட்டையும்<ref>C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: ''"While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkmen must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose ''Mathnawī'', composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."''</ref><ref>Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149: ''"If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local, i.e. non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount. The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazlra and Syria - indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India — also had connections with {various} Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dln Kai-Qubad I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought - in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views {of their subjects}. The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. {Before coming to Anatolia,} the Turkmens had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that thev had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. Ala al-Din Kai-Qubad I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions.'' Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkmenistan, Iran, and Khwarazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Ka us, and Kai-Qubad; and that. Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact {i.e. the importance of Persian influence} is undeniable. With- regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium."''</ref><ref>Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Pesianized and Islamicized"</ref>மொழியையும்<ref name="Shahrbanu"/><ref name="iranica">O.Özgündenli, ''"Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries"'', [[Encyclopaedia Iranica]], Online Edition, ([http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/ot_grp7/ot_pers_mss_ott_20050106.html LINK])</ref><ref name="britannica">[[Encyclopaedia Britannica]], ''"Seljuq"'', Online Edition, ([http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9066688 LINK]): ''"... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."''</ref><ref name="Ravandi">M. Ravandi, ''"The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities"'', in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69</ref><ref>F. Daftary, ''Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times'', in ''History of Civilizations of Central Asia'', Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and [[Clifford Edmund Bosworth|C.E. Bosworth]]; [[UNESCO|UNESCO Publishing]], [[Institute of Ismaili Studies]]: ''"... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."''</ref> பாவித்த செல்யூக்கர்கள் '''துருக்கிய-பாரசீக மரபை''' <ref>"''The [[Turko-Persian tradition]] "features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers".''" See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum,"Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "''In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers.'' </ref> வளர்த்தெடுத்தனர்.
 
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