வாருங்கள்!

வாருங்கள், Premloganathan, விக்கிப்பீடியாவிற்கு உங்களை வரவேற்பதில் மகிழ்ச்சி அடைகிறோம்!

பூங்கோதை விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் பங்களிப்பதைப் பற்றி பேசுகிறார்

உங்கள் பங்களிப்புக்கு நன்றி தொகுப்புக்கு. விக்கிப்பீடியா என்பது உங்களைப் போன்ற பலரும் இணைந்து, கூட்டு முயற்சியாக எழுதும் கலைக்களஞ்சியம் ஆகும். விக்கிப்பீடியாவைப் பற்றி மேலும் அறிய புதுப் பயனர் பக்கத்தைப் பாருங்கள். தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாவைப் பற்றிய உங்கள் கருத்துக்களை தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் கலந்துரையாடலுக்கான ஆலமரத்தடியில் தெரிவியுங்கள். ஏதேனும் உதவி தேவையெனில் ஒத்தாசைப் பக்கத்திலோ அதிக விக்கிப்பீடியர்கள் உலாவும் முகநூல் (Facebook) பக்கத்திலோ கேளுங்கள். நீங்கள் கட்டுரை எழுதி, பயிற்சி பெற விரும்பினால், அருள்கூர்ந்து உங்களுக்கான சோதனை இடத்தைப் (மணல்தொட்டி) பயன்படுத்துங்கள்.


தங்களைப் பற்றிய தகவலை தங்கள் பயனர் பக்கத்தில் தந்தால், தங்களைப் பற்றி அறிந்து மகிழ்வோம். விக்கிப்பீடியா தங்களுக்கு முதன்முதலில் எப்படி அறிமுகமானது என்று தெரிவித்தால், தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாவிற்கு மேலும் பல புதுப்பயனர்களைக் கொண்டு வர உதவியாக இருக்கும்!


நீங்கள் கட்டுரைப் பக்கங்களில் உள்ள பிழைகளைத் திருத்தலாம். கூடுதல் தகவலைச் சேர்க்கலாம். புதுக்கட்டுரை ஒன்றையும் கூடத் தொடங்கலாம். இப்பங்களிப்புகள் எவருடைய ஒப்புதலுக்கும் காத்திருக்கத் தேவையின்றி உடனுக்குடன் உலகின் பார்வைக்கு வரும்.

பின்வரும் இணைப்புக்கள் உங்களுக்கு உதவலாம்:

--சண்முகம்ப7 [[User talk:Shanmugamp7|<font color="#

எனது கட்டுரை கணக்கில் வரவில்லைதொகு

விக்கி தமிழில் போயர் எனும் கட்டுரையினை எனது கம்ப்யூட்டர் முகவரியிலிருந்து துவக்கிய காரணத்தினால், போயர் கட்டுரை எனது premloganathan கணக்கில் வரவு வைக்கப்படவில்லை, தாங்கள் தயவுகூர்த்து இதனை சரிசெய்து தருமாறு அன்புடன் கேட்டுகொள்கின்றேன். நன்றி --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 11:51, 14 பெப்ரவரி 2013 (UTC)

Chitradurga Nayaka (Karnataka)தொகு

valmik=boya=muthuraja=nayaka Socio –Economic Conditions of Ramayana Period

The society was divided in four Varnas. The four divisions (Varna) of the society were Brahamana , Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. This division was based on the guna (characteristic tendencies) and the Karma (acts) of the individuals.

जन्मना जायते शूद्रः कर्मणा जायते द्विजः

Janmana jayate Shudrah – Karmana Jayte Dvijah

“At birth every child is born as Shudra. By his own Karma (action) he becomes a twice-born (dvijah). Brahaman, Kshatriya and Vaishya.

The caste, as understood today is based on birth in particular division. It is the result of generations of people trying to preserve their knowledge and trade within limited circles, by limiting their alliances and minglings with others who follow the same pursuits for the same reasons.

During the Ramayana period ,varna system(Varnashram Dharma) was prevalent. Vishwamitra , who was Kshatriya , was recognized as Brahmarishi. Why there was no caste discrimination in ancient India? read details?

The Ramayana was written by sage Valmiki, born in a Nayaka, Kirat, Boya community. The Mahabharata was written by Veda Vyas,the son of Satyavati, daughter of a ferryman or fisherman, and the wandering sage Parashara. Maharshi Vasishta, Guru of Lord Rama, married Arundhati , not a brahmin. They were not brahmins.

MY QUESTION IS HOW AND WHO DIVIDED INDIA INTO UPPER CASTES AND LOWER CASTES AND DALITHS WERE REGARDED AS UNTOUCHABLES?

The Saraswat Brahmins claim descent from a Brahmin caste mentioned in ancient Hindu scriptures as inhabiting the Saraswati River valley. The reason for their generocity towards Saraswat Brahmins could be that many of these Valmikis were from the banks of river Saraswati in Rajastan and these Valmikis were highly aryanised. The Valmiki himself was an Indo-Aryan .

The Karnataka Government, according to tribal welfare activists, committed a grave injustice to the original tribal people by recommending to the Union Government to include the communities and castes such as Nayaka, Valmiki and Beda under the Scheduled Tribe classification by yielding to political pressure. According to them, the inclusion of the Nayaka community in the ST category has greatly diluted the ST classification, resulting in members of this dominant community cornering most benefits of reservation.

From History of Karnataka, it can be seen that the Valmiki people were rulers of some places such as Chitradurga, Surpur, Keladi, etc. In Karnataka the Valmiki community are also called as Nayaka, Beda, Talavara. All these people are known as Valmikis. The Beda(means Hunters), Talavar (means Natives) also use Nayak as the last names. Now Beda and Talavar communities are identified as Nayaks.

The Bedas are the Bedars and the Bedars are Vedars. While Vedars are a subcaste of Tamil Muthuraja community, these people known as Valmikis are a subcaste of Telugu Mudiraj community today. Vetans = Vedars = the people of Kannappa Kula. Beda or Boya=Boyar = Bedar = Vedar = Valmiki

Chitradurga region has been in existence much before the Vijayanagara empire (1300 AD), governed by local chieftains called "Nayakas". One such Chieftain by name Timmanna Nayaka rose to the rank of governor of Chitradurga under the Vijayanagara empire as a reward for his excellence in military achievements; this fort was built by him in 1562 AD. After the fall of the city of Vijayanagara in 1565, the Chitradurga family and most other central Karnataka nayakas soon declared their independence of the remnants of that empire. Later, in the 17th-18th centuries, Chitradurga became the headquaters of Bedas, until it was occupied by Haider Ali in 1799 and then annexed by the British.

It is well known fact that the Mudiraj people worship Goddess Ankamma. There is one Ankali mutt near Chitradurga. Nestling amongst a group of rugged hills, west of Chitradurga, this mutt is known for its subterranean chambers. Near the Panchalinga cave (Wonder cave) entrance, is an inscription dated 1286 A.D. executed in the reign of the Hoysala King Narasimha III. This stronly proves that these Valmiki Nayakas and Mudiraj are one and the same. This region of Tirupati and Srikalahasti is known to be the home land of Kalabhras ( the ancestors of Muthurajas ) who inveded Chola, Chera, and Pandya kingdoms. These Valmikis could be the descendants of kalabhras who are in turn are known as branch of Kalachuris of Central India.

The term Nayaka means leader. The Nayaka community has three sub-castes namely Valmiki, Beda and Talavara. Valmiki claim direct descent from Valmiki, the author of Ramayana. Bedas practice hunting. Talavars function as messengers as well as village watchmen.NAIKADA, NAYAKA Popularly known as Palegar, Beda, Valmiki, Ramoshi Parivara etc., they are concentrated in the Chitradurga, Shimoga, Bellary and Tumkur. Madakari Nayaka

Madakari Nayaka was the last ruler of Chitradurga.From the south, Hyder Ali of Mysore pretended friendship with Madakari Nayaka and won the Nijagal fort from Marathas, but later Hyder-Ali's eyes fell on Chitraduraga. Hyder-Ali's son Tipu Sultan made it possible by defeating Madakari Nayaka.

During the reign of Madakari Nayaka, the city of Chitradurga was besieged by the troops of Hyder Ali. Hyder Ali spotted a woman entering Chitradurga through a gap in the rocks and sent his soldiers through the crack hole. The guard on duty of the port near the gap had gone home for lunch, leaving his wife to guard the gap. Obavva noticed the soldiers emerging out of this crack, but used her onake (flail for rice) to kill the soldiers. The guard, Obavva's husband, upon his return from his lunch was shocked to see Obavva, with a blood stained Onake and hundreds of soldiers lying dead about her. The passage remains as a historical witness for the story, beside the Tanniru DoNi -a small water source which holds cold water all round the year. Hyder Ali attacked again in 1799 and took the fort.

The place is renowned for its Kallina Kote ("the place of the stone fort"), and is home to the "Fort of Seven Rounds", built with large stones.

The Chitradurga Paleyagar family was of the Beda or Boyar (caste), one of the hill tribes who subsisted by hunting and tending cattle. The accounts of their origin are somewhat confused. According to one tradition, three Beda families emigrated from Jadikal-durga, in Tirupati, and settled at Nirutadi near Bharamasngara about 1475. They are said to have belonged to the Kamageti family and Valmiki gotra. The son and the grand­son of one of these, Hire Hanummappa Nayaka and Timmanna Nayaka, settled at Matti in Davangere taluk. The latter, called Kamageti Timmanna Nayaka, was appointed by the Vijayanagara king, first as the Nayaka of Holalkere, then of Hiriyur and finally of Chitradurga. He fortified the hill at the last-mentioned place and conducted himself in such a manner that a force was sent by the king against him. According to another account, Timmanna Nayaka came with a small body of armed men from a place called Madakeri below the ghats near Tirupati and entered the service of the Paleyagar of Basavapattana. When later as some quarrel arose about a mistress he had kept at Matti, he left the place and took refuge at Mayakonda. Being pursued there also, he escaped to the jungle near Guntur and from there, collecting a band, started plundering on every side, and erected a small fort called Rangapatna near Haleyur. The neighbouring Paleyagars of Harapanahalli, Nidugal and Basavapattana, being annoyed by his depredations, united against him and, with the aid of some Vijayanagara troops, marched upon Rangapatna. Timmanna Nayaka was then forced to retire to Chitradurga, where he was closely besieged. At that time the following incident occurred, which led to his recognition as one of the chiefs dependent on Vijayanagara. This was in about 1562. Timmanna Nayaka

Timmanna Nayaka distinguished himself by stealing into the camp at night with the intention of carrying off the horse of Saluva Narasinga Raya, the Vijayanagara prince, who commanded the forces against him. The groom awoke, and Timmanna hid in the straw to escape observation, when the groom, driving in afresh the peg for the heel ropes, sent it right through the hand of the hiding thief! The latter bore the pain silently and without moving, and when all was again still, he released himself by cutting off the hand which remained pinned to the ground, and made off with the horse This unexampled proof of fortitude showed the besieg­ing army well that no intimidation would be effectual with such an opponent. A peace was, therefore, said to have been concluded. The Vijayanagara king invited the Nayaka to the capital and expressed his great admiration of his courageous exploit. At the request of the king, Timmanna Nayaka next took Gulbarga, which the Vijayanagara forces had failed to take even after a siege of 6 months. The king, pleased with this invited him to court. At a later period, however, he incurred the royal displeasure and was imprisoned at Vijayanagara, where he died.

Timmanna Nayaka was succeeded by his son Obana Nayaka. He took the name Madakeri Nayaka and within a few years of his coming to the throne, declared his independence from the Vijayanagara empire.

In 1602, Obana Nayaka was succeeded by his son Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka. His reign was full of conflicts with the neighbouring chiefs. There took place several battles with the Paleyagar of Basavapattana in connection with the possession of Mayakonda, Santebennur, Holalkere, Anaji, Jagalur and other places, which ultimately remained as parts of Chitradurga terri­tory. At the time of his death in 1652, his possessions yielded a revenue of 65,000 Durgi Pagodas.

Rangappa Nayaka was succeeded by his son Madakeri Nayaka II in 1652. He is also credited with a number of victories, particularly in the east. During his time, the kingdom was divided into four regions and the local officers in charge: of these were Hotte Gurukanna, Karanika Bhunappa, Abbigere Mallanna and Karanika Appanna. The Nayaka died in 1674, leaving a dominion yielding 100,000 Durgi Pagodas. Chikkanna Nayaka

Madakeri Nayaka had no children and his adopted son, Obana Nayaka succeeded him to the throne of Chitradurga. Obana was put to death by the Dalavayis, possibly because he had failed to give them the customary gratuities. Chikkanna Nayaka, a younger brother of Madakeri Nayaka, was installed in 1676. At this time, the Harapana­halli chief laid siege to Anaji and killed the local officer Bhunappa. Chikkanna Nayaka went to Anaji and forced the opponents to ruse the siege. Immediately after this, he had to run to Harihar todefend it against the Muhammadans, who, under Shamsher Khan had attacked that place. The defence was effected by the follow­ing strategy ; On the approach of night, numerous torches were lit and fixed to the branches of trees and the horns of the cattle and the musicians were asked to play on their instruments as usual at his encampment on a hill called Baregudda. The intention was to create an impression in the enemies' camp that the army was there still. The Nayaka marched with his whole force by a circuitous route and threw himself into the fort from the west and drove off the enemies. The Chitradurga officer at Harihar at this time is said to have been a Muslim named Sher Khan who was continued in his position by the Nayaka. Chikkanna formed marriage alliances with the Rayadurga and Basavapattana chiefs. It is said that the Chitradurga family changed its religious faith twice during the reign of this Nayaka. First, the entire family em­braced Veerashaivism and the Nayaka even caused a Matha to be built in the fort and a Virakta Jangama named Ugrachannaviradeva to be appointed to act as a guru to them. But later, all are said to have returned to their original faith, except one lady named Hatti Mallavva Nagati, who wore the linga on her person and live separately from the rest of the family. Chikkanna Nayaka died in 1686.

Chikkanna Nayaka was succeeded by his elder brother Linganna Nayaka, otherwise called Madakeri Nayaka III. But at this time there arose a serious difference of opinion amongst the Dalavayis as to the rightful successor to the throne. One section of them, headed by one Panchamara Muddanna, imprisoned, and later killed, Linganna Nayaka and set up one Donne Rangappa Nayaka on the throne. For some time Muddanna remained the strongest man in Chitradurga ; but soon the other section headed by one Dalavayi Bharamappa gained the upper hand. Muddanna and his brothers were soon destroyed and Donne Rangappa imprisoned. Bharamappa Nayaka

This Dalavayi Bharamappa was a man of forethought interested in the integrity of the State. At this moment, there being no direct heir to the throne, he, in consultation with the other elders of the court, brought a distant heir named Bharamappa Nayaka. The new Nayaka ascended the throne in about 1689. This was really a difficult time for the State ; for, it was during this period that the Mughals overran the possessions of Bijapur and established their government at Sira, of which Basavapattana and Budihal were made paraganas and to which Chitradurga and other neighbouring States of Paleyagars became tributaries. There were many battles in the reign of this Nayaka between Chitradurga and Harapanahalli, Rayadurga and Bijapur in all of which the Nayaka had splendid success. His long reign of 33 years (1689-1721) was equally remarkable for the extent of his benefactions. He is said to have built as many as 30 temples, 3 or 4 palaces, 5 strong forts and not less than 20 tanks throughout his territory. A part of the Chitradurga fort, a number of gate­ways and bastions are also attributed to him. The only thing from which people suffered during this reign was the great plague in 1703, which took a heavy toll and which caused an almost complete evacuation of the capital city for some days.

On his death in 1721, Bharamappa Nayaka was succeeded by his son Hiri Madakeri Nayaka. Within two or three years of accession, the young prince had to face the consequences of a famine and the Maratha raid under Piraji. His reign was punctuated with a number of hostilities against Harapanahalli, Savanur, Bidanur and the Marathas. He was generally successful in his engagements and, annexed a large tract of country, especially in the noth-east extending beyond Molakahnuru. There was a great battle in Mayakonda in 1747-48 between Chitradurga and the confederate forces of Bidanur, Rayadurga, Harapanahalli and Savanur. The Chitradurga army met with disaster and the Nayaka was slain by Somashekhara Nayaka of Harapanahalli. During the reign of this Nayaka, Chitratlurga rose in prosperity; State revenue reached 300,000 Durgi Pagodas. The chief is remembered for the con­struction of a number of temples, but is also said to have made arrangements for a number of worships and festivals in different temples. Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II

The next Nayaka was his son Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka II, who retook Mayakonda. This he achieved with the help of the Maratha Sardar Murari Rao and the Subedar of Advani. Kasturi Rangappa Nayaka is said to have made various expeditions to the north and south, and in the latter direction gained some possessions in the Budihal region. He is also said to have kept up friendship with the Subedar of Sira. He died in 1754 without issue, and Madakeri Nayaka, called Madakeri Nayaka the last, son of one Bharamappa Nayaka of Janakal-Durga, was his successor. Raja Veera Madakari Nayaka

At the time of his accession to the Chitradurga throne, Madakeri Nayaka, who was destined to be the last Nayaka of Nayak'a Cliitradurga, was but a boy of 12. The enemies of Chitradurga trie their hand once more on the State, but the Bedas remained faithful and defended the Nayaka. Kalyadurga made an effort alone and met with failure. Then there came in 1759-00 a united front formed by Rayadurga, Harapanahalli and Savannr. A battle took place near IHoskere in where Chilradurga got clear victory, though with some loss. This was followed by some minor disturbances owing to the activities of the chiefs of Tarikere and Jarimale in the border areas of the State.

Chitradurga had become a powerful State in the south, so powerful that even the major powers like Haidar Ali and the Peshwas sought its help against each other. This placed the Nayaka in an embarrassing position. First he helped Haidar Ali in his campaigns against Bankapur, Nijagal, Bidanur and the Marathas. But in spite of all this, the Nawab had never been straightforward with the Nayaka. He had an eye on Chitradurga and was waiting for an opportunity to attack. In 1777, Haidar was threatened with a formidable invasion by the allied armies of the Marathas and the Nizam. The Nayaka of Chitradurga changed his allegiance. Haidar marched upon Chitradurga, rejecting the offers of the Chief to pay a large fine. The siege was maintained for some months without success, when an arrangement was entered into and a fine of thirteen lakhs of pagodas levied on the Chief. The Maratha campaign over, Haidar once more approached Chitradurga. The story of this siege forms a brilliant chapter in the history of Chitradurga, which held out against Haidar for months (153). At last, only by the treachery of the Muhammadan officers in the Paleyagar's service, the place was taken in 1779. Madakeri Nayaka and his family were sent as prisoners to Srirangapattana and 20,000 Beda soldiers from Chitradurga were also sent to the island of Srirangapattana(Mysore), with the sole view of breaking up their power.

This last Madakeri Nayaka was undoubtedly a remarkable man. A brave soldier, a shrewd administrator and a generous chief, he was easily the most influential and respected Paleyagar of his age. Particularly his generosity to the soldiers and generals has been described as ' beyond limits' and was wondered at by the recipients themselves. With all this, this Nayaka is said to have had a detestable trait also in him, which often made him un­popular even amongst his own men. This was his harsh treatment to the enemies. In one of his campaigns against Haidar, he is said to have caused a huge Virasana or hero-platform made of the severed heads of the enemies and requested the Peshwa Madhava-rao, on whose side he had led this campaign, to be seated on it and bathe with enemies' blood! And when the Peshwa refused to do so, the Nayaka is further said to have had the honour done to himself(l54). After the death of the Nayaka, the Chitradurga treasury is said to have yielded to Haidar, inter alia, the following numbers of various coins : 400,000 silver, 100,000 royal, 1,700,000 Ashrafi, 2,500,000 Dabolikadali and 1,000,000 Chavuri.

Thus came to an end the Chitradurga line of Paleyagars, after ruling the present district of Chitradurga together with some outlying tracts. These princes invariably valorous in battle, merciful and generous to their enemies, wise and discreet in their administration, far-sighted in their policy,religious and orthodox in their belief. These powerful chieftains had some French engineers in their service and built very strong fortresses and other works of public utility. Keladi Nayaka Kingdom During the decline of Vijayanagar empire in the 14th century, the administration of Kasaragod area was vested with the Ikkery Naikans. They continued to be the rulers till the fall of the Vijayanagar empire in 16th century. Then Vengappa Naik declared independence to Ikkery. In 1645 Sivappa Naik took the reigns and transferred the capital to Bednoor. Thus they came to be known as Bednoor Naik. Chandragiri and Bekal forts are considered to be parts of a chain of Forts constructed by Sivappa Naik. KOTTAPPURAM Mud fort build by the Nileshwar Rajas and later annexed by Bednore Nayaks in the 18th century.

Bednur seems to derive its name from Bedan ( Bedar) Nayaka rulers who built it and made it as the capital city of Bednur Nayaka kingdom. While Bedans or Bedars are a subcate of Tamil Muthurajas, the same people who are known as valmikis in parts of Karnataka and Andra are a subcaste of Telugu Mudiraj. Mudiraj = Muthuraja = Mudduraj

Telugu Mudirajas, Tamil Muthurajas, Kodagu Muddurajas and Keladi & Chitradurg valmiki Nayas are all one and the same warrior people who ruled the entire South India.

 Telugu Mudiraj = Tamil Muthuraj = Kodagu Mudduraj = Keladi Valmiki Nayaks


Aghoreshwara Temple, Rameshwara Temple, Rameshwara Temple, Rameshwara Temple, Keladi, Shivamogga District .

Keladi Nayaka (1499 - 1763 CE) were an important ruling clan of post-medieval Karnataka, India. They initially started to rule as a feudatory of the Vijayanagar Empire. After the fall of the empire in 1565, they gained independence and ruled significant parts of Karnataka including Shivamogga, practically the whole of coastal districts and parts of central districts of present day Karnataka till 1763 when they were overthrown by Hyder Ali, the king of Mysore. They played an important part in the history of Karnataka, during a time of confusion and fragmentation that generally prevailed in South India after the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire. The Nayaka clan

Chaudappa (1499 - 1530) from Keladi was the earliest chieftain to rule the area surrounding Shivamogga.

Sadashiva Nayaka (1530 - 1566) was an important chieftain in the Vijayanagar Empire and earned the title Kotekolahala from emperor Aliya Rama Raya for his heroics in the battle of Kalyani. The coastal provinces of Karnataka came under his direct rule. He moved the capital to Ikkeri some 20 km. from Keladi.

Sankanna Nayaka (1566 - 1570)

Chikkasankanna (1570 - 1580) was an opportunistic ruler who took advantage of the confusion in the Vijayanagar Empire following its defeat at Tallikota and grabbed a few provinces in Uttara Kannada district.

Ramaraja Nayaka (1580 - 1586)

Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka (1586 - 1629) is considered by scholars as ablest monarch of the clan. He completely freed himself from the overlordship of the relocated Vijayanagar rulers of Penugonda. Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, who visited his kingdom in 1623, called him an able soldier and administrator. In his reign the kingdom expanded so that it covered coastal regions, malnad regions, and some regions to the east of the western Ghats of present day Karnataka. He is also known to have defeated the Adilshahis of Bijapur in Hanagal. Though a Virashaiva by faith,a valmiki nayaka king converted to veerashaivism , he built many temples for Vaishnavas and Jains and a mosque for Muslims.

Virabhadra Nayaka (1629 - 1645) faced many troubles from the start, including competition from rival chieftains for the throne of Ikkeri and invasion by the Sultanate armies of Bijapur. Ikkeri was plundered by the Bijapur army during his time.

Shivappa Nayaka (1645 - 1660) is widely considered as the ablest and greatest of the Keladi rulers. He was not only an able administrator; he also patronised literature and fine arts. His successful campaigns against the Bijapur sultans, the Mysore kings, the Portuguese, and other Nayakas of the neighbouring territories east of the western ghats helped expand the kingdom to its greatest extent, covering large areas of present day Karnataka. He gave importance to agriculture and developed new schemes for collection of taxes and revenues which earned him much praise from later British officials. A statue of him and the palace built by him containing many artifacts of his times are reminders of the respect he has earned even from the present generation of people of the region.

Chikkavenkatappa Nayaka (1660 - 1662)

Bhadrappa Nayaka (1662 - 1664)

Somashekara (1664 - 1672) The King who was once a good administrator, gave up his interest in administration after his associastion with a dancer named Kalavati. Bharame Mavuta, a relative of Kalavati slow poisoned the king which eventually led to his death.

Keladi Chennamma (1672 - 1697) was an able ruler who some scholars say allied with the Maratha Shivaji and later his son Sambhaji to defeat all rival claimants to the throne. She gave shelter to Chhatrapathi Rajaram when he fled from the Mughal army. Chennamma of Keladi is well remembered by local people through tales of her bravery.

Basavappa (1697 - 1714)

Somashekara (1714 - 1739)

Kiriya Basavappa (1739 - 1754)

Chennabasappa (1754 - 1757)

Queen Virammaji (1757 - 1763) was defeated by Hyder Ali and the Keladi kingdom merged with the Kingdom of Mysore. Nayaka Dynasty of Ikkeri

The Nayaka Dynasty of Ikkeri, a feudatory family rose to power due to the feudalistic decentralization in the Vijayanagara Empire was a very important empire. Later on the Nayakas became independent and came to be called the rulers of Ikkeri. They ruled from 1500 to 1763, under uncertain conditions in the south.

The Nayaka dynasty was matchless in framing the political and cultural history of Karnataka because they continued the policy of the Vijayanagara emperors in acting as a barricade against expansion of Islam. Besides this, the Keladi rulers successfully curbed the expansionist tendencies of the Portuguese power on the western coast. The kings also offered resistance to the absorption of their territory by the Sultan of Bijapur. At its zenith, the Keladi kingdom extended from Goa in the north and Cannannore in the south and included the present Shimoga, Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada and part of Hassan districts.

Two semi-historical literary works Keladinripavijaya and the Sivcttattva Ratnakara speak about the history of Keladi. The founders of the kingdom were Chauda and Bhadra, the sons of a Veera Saiva agriculturalist. Having discovered a buried treasure in their field at Keladi, Chauda managed to become the chieftain of that village. He ruled for thirteen years having been crowned in 1500. The two brothers were employed by Krishnadeva Raya against rebel elements in his empire. In recognition of the heroism and loyalty of: Chauda the Vijayanagara emperor made him the governor of Pulladesa and gave him the title Keladi Mulasam Sthanada Chaudappa nayaka. He had two sons Sadasiva and Bhadrappa. Chaudappa Nayaka was succeeded by his son Sadasiva Nayaka.


Sadasiva Nayaka (1513-1536) or (1530-1567)

The Keladi Nayakas emerge into the limelight with the accession of Sadasiva. He is known to have routed the rulers of Kalyana, Kalburgi, Bidar, Bankapur, and the Tulu and Kerala countries and gained the title of `Satrusaptangaharana.` According to one of his inscriptions, Sadasiva ruled over 56 garudas comprising Araga, Gutti, thirty-six Kampanas, Tulu rajya, Barakura and Manguluru. Besides military exploits, Sadasiva is credited for having made grants to Brahmin and Virasaiva mathas, and constructing forts at Chandragiri, Keladi and Kasargod. He appears to have taken to a retired life towards the end of his life and left the responsibility of administration to Bhadrappa Nayaka. Later the successors of Sadasiva continued as feudatories of the Vijayanagar Empire till Venkatappa Nayaka I became independent some time in 1613. It is believed that the capital of this kingdom was shifted from Keladi to Ikkeri during Sadasiva Nayaka`s time. But according to some scholars this happened during Venkatappa Nayaka.

Venkatappa Nayaka (1582-1629)

Venkatappa was the most successful Nayaka who extended his kingdom on all sides and drove back the Bijapur forces. He defeated Bhairadevi of Gerusoppa and restricted the Portuguese expansion. To mark the victory against Bhairadevi, he erected a pillar at Hangal. The Keladi state became a power to be reckoned with and the rice and pepper trade of the west passed into the hands of the Nayaks from the Portuguese. Venkatappa is credited with the construction of a number of forts, temples and the founding of many agraharas (villages granted to learned Brahmanas). Venkatappa was succeeded by his grandson Virabhadra Nayaka (1629-45). Virabhadra`s reign was one of political troubles. As Virabhadra died without a male heir, the throne passed on to his uncle`s sons - Sivappa and Venkatappa. Sivappa murdered Venkatappa, who had been crowned because of his age, and ascended the throne in 1645.

Shivappa Nayaka

Shivappa Nayaka (reigned 1645 - 1660) also known as Keladi Shivappa Nayaka, was a notable ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom. The Keladi Nayakas were successors of the Vijayanagara Empire in the coastal and Malnad (hill) districts of Karnataka, India, in the late 16th century. At their peak, the Nayakas built a niche kingdom comprising the coastal, hill and some interior districts (Bayaluseeme) of modern Karnataka, before succumbing to the Kingdom of Mysore ruled by Hyder Ali in 1763.He was known as Sistina Shivappa Nayaka because he introduced a tax system called Sist. Conquests

Shivappa Nayaka is remembered as an able administrator and soldier. He ascended the throne in 1645. During this time, the last ruler of the diminished Vijayanagara Empire ruling from Vellore, Shriranga Raya III was defeated by the Bijapur Sultanate and sought refuge with Shivappa. The growing threat of the Portuguese was eliminated by 1653 and the ports of Mangalore, Kundapura and Honnavar were brought under Keladi control.[3] Having conquered the Kannada coast, he marched down to Kasargod region of modern Kerala and installed a pillar of victory at Nileshvara. The forts of Chandragiri, Bekal and Mangalore were built by Shivappa Nayaka.

Later he invaded north of the Tungabhadra river and captured territory in the modern Dharwad district from the Bijapur Sultanate. In the south, when he invaded and laid siege to Srirangapatna in modern Mysore district, an epidemic broke out in his army forcing him the withdraw. Administrator

Shivappa Nayaka introduced a revenue settlement scheme called Sist, a policy that has found favourable comparison to revenue schemes formulated by the Mogul emperor Akbar. According to this scheme, agricultural lands were divided into five types depending on the type of soil and available irrigational facilities. A unit of sowing capacity called Khanduga was developed and every irrigable land was taxed in varying amounts based on this unit. The rate of taxation depended on the yield in each one of these five types of land, the rate varying from village to village and amounting to a third of the total yield. Shivappa Nayaka gave importance to agriculture which resulted in an expanding agrarian economy.A religious and tolerant man, Shivappa Nayaka performed Vedic sacrifices and rituals and patronised the Hindu Advaita order of Sringeri. He was tolerant towards Christians and gave them land to cultivate. He encouraged the mercantile communities of South India such as the Komatis and Konkanis to settle down and establish businesses in his kingdom.

An interesting episode from the time of Shivappa Nayaka's rule goes as follows. A poor man called Ganesh Mallya came to Keladi, the capital city, with the intention of finding a job. Having no money, he carried a bag full of home-grown coconuts. Before entering the city, every traveller had to pass through eight toll gates, each of which collected a tax. Because he carried no cash, Ganesh Mallya had to part with two coconuts at each toll gate, one as tax and the other as a gift to the official. He also paid with two coconuts at the city entrance. Frustrated with all the tolls, Mallya boldly set up his own toll gate (the ninth toll gate) and collected a toll after registering full details of travellers into the city in his own register. In return for the toll, Ganesh Mallya handed out a receipt with a note new custom station for eighteen coconuts, signature of Ganeshayya Raja of Kumta. This went on unnoticed for eighteen months before King Shivappa Nayaka heard of it. When summoned by the king, Ganesh Mallya admitted he had collected an illegal toll to make a livelihood. Impressed by his honesty and business acumen, Shivappa Nayaka took Ganesh Mallya into his service. Shivappa Nayaka was succeeded on the throne by his younger brother Chikkavenkatappa Nayaka in 1660. Shivamogga district

Shivamogga District is a district in the Karnataka state of India.Shivamogga is alternatively spelt as Shimoga. A major part of this district lies in the Malnad region of the Western Ghats; a region known for its green forests, plentiful rainfall, beautiful waterfalls and also of being the source of many rivers that flow in Karnataka. Shivamogga City is the headquarters of this district. The most popular attraction of this district is the Jog Falls. It is also the district that is the native of most number of Chief Ministers of the state of Karnataka. History

The history of the Shivamogga region is very much the history of Karnataka itself, considering that all the great kingdoms that came to power here have vied for control of and ruled this land of rich resources. Prior to the beginning of the first millennium, the Shivamogga region formed a part of the Maurya empire. The Satavahana then came to control in central India and Shivamogga must have formed one of the southern most provinces of the kingdom.After the fall of the Shatavahana empire around 200 C.E., after a brief interlude of confusion that existed, the area came under the control of the Kadambas of Banavasi around 345 C.E. The Kadambas were the earliest kingdom to give administrative status to Kannada language. Banavasi is just across the border from Shivamogga inside Uttara Kannada district. Later the Kadambas became feudatories of the Badami Chalukyas around 540 C.E..Shivamogga passed into the hands of the Rashtrakutas in the 8th century. It was only under the Kalyani Chalukyas who overthrew the Rashtrakutas did Shivamogga come into prominence in Southern India. Balligavi in Shivamogga district had its greatest and grandest time during there rule. Later in the 12th. century with the weakening of the Kalyani Chalukyas the Hoysalas annexed this area. Shivamogga continued to play an important role in the development of Kannada culture and arts during this time. After the fall of the Hoysalas to the invasion of the Khilji dynasty around 1343 C.E. the entire region came under the Vijayanagar Empire without any bloodshed. The Saluva kings of the Vijayanagar empire find their roots in this region. After the defeat of Vijayanagar empire in 1565 C.E. in the battle of Tallikota, Shivamogga had one more last surprise in that the local Keladi Nayakas who were originally feudatory of the Vijayanagar empire took control, declared sovereignty and ruled mostly as an independent kingdom for about two centuries, often waging wars with the Mysore Kingdom, the Sultans of Bijapur and finally the Maratha. In 1763 they were finally absorbed into the Kingdom of Mysore and remained a part of it till independence from the British . Tirumalai Nayaka of Madurai Nayaka dynasty of Madurai

One of the well-known rulers of the Nayaka dynasty of Madurai, Tirumalai Nayak was very apt in administration activities. Son of Muttu Krishnappa, Tirumalai Nayaka succeeded his brother Muttu Virappa Nayaka on the throne. Muttu Virappa had changed his capital from Madurai to Tiruchirapalli. But, Tirumalai Nayak shifted his capital from Tiruchirapalli back to Madurai, and carefully organised the defenses of the kingdom.

Tirumalai`s reign was marked by a large number of military campaigns. He was successful in his wars with Mysore. He undertook a successful expedition against Travancore in about 1634-35 A.D. He settled the dispute for throne between Sadaika Deva and Tambi in the Ramanth region. Finally, Raghunatha Deva became the ruler and he remained loyal to Tirumala who rewarded him liberally when he crushed the poligar rising at Ettaiyapuram. Till about 1634 Tirumala was loyal to Vijayanagar, though it was only a normal subordination. Then he planned an alliance with the Nayaks of Gingee and Tanjavur, to oppose Sriranga III, the Vijayanagar emperor. His plans were betrayed by the Nayak of Tanjavur. Then Tirumala requested the Golconda Sultan to help him against the emperor.

After defeating Sriranga, the Sultan turned against the other South Indian kingdoms. So Tirumala was forced to ask the Sultan of Bijapur for help. But all this led to expansion of Muslim rule in the south. He remained neutral in the contests between the Dutch and the Portuguese in the south. Tirumala made significant contributions in the realms of art and architecture. He built the Pudu mandapa, dug the Uppakula (tank), carried out many repairs and renovations to the Madurai temple and began the unfinished Raya gopura in Madurai. He also built an extensive palace to the south-east of the temple. Tirumala is credited with the building of many structures - both religious and civilians in his realm- at Madurai, Tirupparan-kunram, Alagarkoyil, Srivilliputtur, etc.

Rani Mangamma of Madurai

Famous for developing infrastructure, Rani Mangamma was the queen of Chokkanatha Nayaka (1659-82) of Madurai. She ruled as the regent when her grandson Vijayaranga Chokkanatha was crowned when he was barely three months old. Her son Ranga Krishna Virappa Nayaka died in 1689 after a short rule. His wife Muttamma committed suicide after the birth of her son Vijayaranga Chokkanatha.

The tact and diplomacy of Mangammal helped in maintaining amicable relations with the neighbouring powers. She bought off the Muslims and was subordinate and loyal to them. She also bribed the Marathas. Mangamma successfully resisted the aggressive policy of Chikkadevaraya of Mysore. She undertook an expedition to Travancore to collect arrears of tribute. Her war with Tanjavur ended in peace and an alliance. In Ramnad, Kilavan Setupati was becoming more and more independent. In about 1698 A.D. he besieged Madurai city and took it but was soon driven out. In 1702 A.D. he became completely independent.

Mangamma showed great lenience towards Christian preachers and her Christian subjects. She was equally considerate towards other religions. A copper plate inscription of 1692 records a grant for the maintenance of a mosque in the name of her grandson. In 1701 she financed for the construction of a Muhammadan dargah as a gift to some villages near Tiru-chirapalli.

Mangamma has favoured many Hindus. Her liberality regarding charities and public works is proverbial. She is famous as a road maker. She built some artistic public edifices like summer house and the choultry, which is named after her prestigious name. She provided for the comfort of pedestrians by planting trees on the roads she constructed and repaired, and placing inns and supplies of water on the way. She made grants for providing village settlements for brahmanas called agraharas. An inscription of 1701 records a grant of land for a feeding institute. She paid attention to irrigation, as is indicated by her inscriptions on the bank of the Uyyakondan channel in 1687 and 1704. She is said to have met with a tragic death in 1706 A.D.

Vijayaraghava Nayaka of Tanjavur

The last ruler of the great Nayaka rulers of Tanjavur, Vijayaraghava Nayaka was the son of Raghunatha Nayaka. He was also known as Mannarudasa and Achyuta Vijayaraghava Nayaka as he succeeded his father to the throne in c. 1634 A.D. and ruled over the Tanjavur area for a long time till 1673 A.D.

Trapped between several conflicts, Vijayaraghava`s reign was not a peaceful one as he was caught between the Nayakas of Madurai on one side and the Muslim armies on another. Unlike the Nayakas of Madurai who were disloyal to their overlords the last emperors of Vijayanagara, the Nayaks of Tanjavur, up to the time of Vijayaraghava rendered help to their masters and assisted them in all their battles against the Muslim forces.

Vijayaraghava is very well-known with regard to his contributions to religion and culture, especially the fine arts of music and dance, for which Tanjavur had become very famous due to the contributions of his predecessors like Raghunatha, Achyutappa and Sevappa. He too was a great patron of learning and was a scholar in Sanskrit and Telugu and composed the Vijayaragbavabhyudayam and other works.

Vijayaraghava sheltered a large number of poets, musicians and scholars who flocked to his court. He honoured these intellectuals for their imperishable talents. Some of the more important poets were Kamarazu Venkatapati Somayaji, the author of Vijaya-raghava Chandrika and Koneti Dikshita, author of Vijayaraghava Kalyanam. Among the poetesses, Rangajamma was the most famous. The famous music composer Kshetragna, who composed numerous compositions known as padams sung by many musicians of the present day, frequented the court of this king.

Achyutappa Nayaka of Tanjavur

A jewel stone in the crown of the Tanjavur Nayaka lineage was Achyutappa Nayaka of the 16th century A.D. He was one of the most well known rulers in South India. He ruled along with his father Sevappa Nayaka, for a period of about twenty years from 1560 A.D., and after his death ascended the throne at Tanjavur in 1580 A.D. Achyutappa Nayaka was an devout person, a Vaishnava by faith, and devoted to Lord Ranganatha (Vishnu) of the temple at Srirangam (Tiruchirapalli district), Tamil Nadu.

Literary works, the Nayaka age such as the Sanjjita Sudha and the Kaghunatha-bhyudayam divulge that, Achyutappa was also a patron of music and dance. Achyutappa Nayaka was fond of the Kuchipudi style of dance of the Andhra region and invited many Telugu exponents of this style of dance and also the Bhagavata Mela style from their native villages in Andhra to live in Melattur in Tanjavur district. They were provided with houses and land and this area came to be called Achyutapuram or Achyutarayapuram after the name of this patron.

Achyutappa Nayaka`s other contributions to the cultural scene included building and renovating many temples and honouring poets and scholars by giving them gifts of land and money, which added to the enriching glory of the Tanjavur area. This liberal king extended his patronage to Saivas, Vaishnavas and Madhvas as seen from the inscriptions and the literary sources of that time. He abdicated the throne in 1680 and made his son Raghunatha the ruler of Tanjavur. Achyutappa was supported by his very loyal and brilliant minister Govinda Dikshita, a great scholar, who also went on to be the minister of Achyutappa`s son Raghunatha, one of the most famous kings of the Nayakas who ruled with Achyutappa as heir apparent (yuva-raja) for some time before ascending the throne in Tanjavur.

Sevappa Nayaka of Tanjavur

The Vijayanagara Empire which covered most of South India has witnessed the most prosperous times in the 16th century. Following the death of their greatest emperor Krishnadeva Raya, Achyuta Raya succeeded the throne. He appointed a number of viceroys to govern various parts of his far-flung empire and one of these was Sevappa Nayaka who was given the Tanjavur area in the Tamil region to rule over. Sevappa was related to Achyuta Raya (his wife was the sister of Achyuta Raya`s queen) and so the emperor was fond of him for his loyalty and dedication.

Sevappa a peacemaker and gem of a person did not indulge in war activites.His reign in the Tanjavur kingdom was known to be one of comparative peace and prosperity. He helped the Vijayanagar emperor with his army and financial resources whenever needed during wars with the Bahmani kingdom.Sevappa`s contributions to the cultural and religious spheres is remembered even today. He brought about a cultural efflorescence of Tanjavur in the subsequent ages. Numerous temples were constructed and many gifts of gold, jewels and land were donated to the deities on various occasions. Many tanks such as the Sivaganga tank in Tanjavur were repaired and renovated by him, which were of great help to the agriculturists of the area. One of the gopuras (temple towers) of the Arunachaleshwara (Siva) temple at Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, was constructed during his reign.

Sevappa`s spirit of religious tolerance is well known. Although a Vaishnava by faith, he donated liberally to Saiva shrines and his gift to a Madhva teacher as well as to other religious faiths such as Buddhism and Islam are also recorded. Sevappa was succeeded by his son Achyuttapa Nayaka after his death in 1680 A.D. References & Sources

Gazetteer of India, Chitradurga District, 1967.

Gazetteer of Mysore By B. L. Rice

Patil, C. S. (1999) Karnataka Kotegalu [Forts of Karnataka]. Hampi: Kannada University.

Puttanna, M. S. (1924) Chitradurgada Paleyagararu [Chitradurga Poligars]. Bangalore.

Ramachandra Rao, P. B. (1943) The Poligars of Mysore and Their Civilization. Teppakulam: Palaniappa Bros.

Rice, B. Lewis (1897) Mysore: A Gazetteer Compiled for Government. Revised edition. 2 Vols. London: Archibald Constable and Company.

Rice, B. Lewis (1903) Inscriptions in the Chitaldroog District. Epigraphia Carnatica, Vol. XI. Bangalore: Mysore Government Central Press.

Saletore, R. N. (1940) The Conquest of Citradurga by Hyder Ali. Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 29:171-188.

Sathyan, B. N., ed. (1967) Mysore State Gazetteer: Chitradurga District. Bangalore: Government Press.

Srikanta Sastri, S. (1928) Capitulation of Chitradurga. Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 18:145-154.

Srikantaya, S. (1941) Chitaldrug. Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 31:339-356.

Wilks, Mark (1989) Historical Sketches of the South of India in an Attempt to Trace the History of Mysore. 2 vols. Reprint of 1930 edition; originally published in 1810. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise history of Karnataka from pre-historic times tothe present, Jupiter books, 2001, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002).

KIRAT KINGDOMதொகு

kirat kingdom of boya valmiki people Boyar = Kirat = Valmiki History


Socio –Economic Conditions of Ramayana Period

The society was divided in four Varnas. The four divisions (Varna) of the society were Brahamana , Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. This division was based on the guna (characteristic tendencies) and the Karma (acts) of the individuals.

जन्मना जायते शूद्रः कर्मणा जायते द्विजः

Janmana jayate Shudrah – Karmana Jayte Dvijah

“At birth every child is born as Shudra. By his own Karma (action) he becomes a twice-born (dvijah). Brahaman, Kshatriya and Vaishya.

The caste, as understood today is based on birth in particular division. It is the result of generations of people trying to preserve their knowledge and trade within limited circles, by limiting their alliances and minglings with others who follow the same pursuits for the same reasons.

During the Ramayana period ,varna system(Varnashram Dharma) was prevalent. Vishwamitra , who was Kshatriya , was recognized as Brahmarishi. Why there was no caste discrimination in ancient India? read details?

The Ramayana was written by sage Valmiki, born in a Nayaka, Kirat, Boya community. The Mahabharata was written by Veda Vyas,the son of Satyavati, daughter of a ferryman or fisherman, and the wandering sage Parashara. Maharshi Vasishta, Guru of Lord Rama, married Arundhati , not a brahmin. They were not brahmins.

MY QUESTION IS HOW AND WHO DIVIDED INDIA INTO UPPER CASTES AND LOWER CASTES AND DALITHS WERE REGARDED AS UNTOUCHABLES? During Indo-Aryan migration around 5th century BCE, The Boya warriors from Indus valley invaded south-eastern region. The original population of Boyas was mixed with Rajasthani-speaking Rajput cavalry together with various lingustic group, These Beda or Boya = Boyar = Kirat = Valmiki warriors served as military regiment and chiefs between 10th century to 15th century in Chalukya, Chola, Vijayanagar and Hoysala empires.

Karnataka -- Names Bedar(nayaka), Valmiki nayaka are in vogue. Bedar was the word used by Muslims either to show the dauntless quality or may be inability to pronounce properly. Muslim books mention the word Bedar as powerful group.s

Pracetas Valmiki Kshatriya was born into this hunter tribe but due to his wisdom and saintly personality he became a Brahmana who learned Sanskrit. once a savage, became ‘Adi kavi’ in Sanskrit by writing the epic Ramayana and great sage.

In Yoga Vasistha 1.15.5 Rama speaks of Kirateneva vagura, "a trap [laid] by Kirats", so about BCE Xth Century, they were thought of as jungle trappers, the ones who dug pits to capture roving deer. The same text also speaks of King Suraghu, the head of the Kirats who is a friend of the Persian King, 'Parigha'.

Boyas or Bedars were none other than Vanaras of Kishkinta kingdom of Ramayana times in South India. These were the vanara warriors who were controlled by Sri Rama in the war against Demon Ravana of Srilanka to rescue Sita. Boya and Valmiki are the names in vogue. Boya consider themselves as descendents of ' Bhagwan Valmiki' a sanskrit writer.

The most famous Kirats in Hinduism are the Kiratra avatar of Shiva, Lord Buddha and Bhagwan Valmiki, writer of the Ramayana.

Boya caste corresponds to Kirats of sanskrit writers, the Warriors, hunters and mountaineers, as the names indicate, they belonged to one of the hill tribes who subsisted by hunting and tending cattle. The accounts of their origin are sometimes confusing, but it appears some group were involved in building forts, temples and bridges. That is how they are well versed in construction activity even today.

In ancient Hindu scriptures, The Himalayas is referred as the "Kirant Desh" or "the Land of Kirants". King Yalamba

The term ‘Kirat’ is a corrupt form of kiriat, kiryat or kirjat which means a fort or town in Moabite language of Mediterranean region. When there number increased, they built many forts and towns and called them Kiriat-hime, Kiryat-yarim, Kirjath-arba, Kiryat-baal, Kiryat hujro, Kiryat-sanna and kiryat-sapher which indicate the meaning of the town or fort of the forest or the town of the god Baal, or the town of Books, or the town of palm trees. The residents of the above noted towns started calling themselves, “Kereti” which later became keratite or kerite tribe. The kereti people led a nomadic life and spread towards the eastern and north-eastern countries.

In 2400 BC, a branch of which came to Mesopotamia or Assyrian country, intermingled with the ashur people and formed one nation with them. Later they migrated to northern India and Himalayan region via Meydia and Nisa of Northern Persia with title of Kirat-ashur tribe. In Sanskrit texts Kirat people is included among Yavanas, Pallavas, kochas and Pulinda races. The greek had also known the kirats by name Kirhadai. The kirat- Ashur were great hunters they preferred to live in mountainous countries of Kabul, Kashmir, Karakoram and all Himalayan Regions. There were certain principalities which were definitely styled as Nishada in the Epic and Alavaka in Pali texts and were doubtless of non-Aryan origin.

The Biblical atlas and scripture Gazetteer of religious tract society of London proves that the ancient land of Ashur or Assura people situated on the east bank of river Tigris, bounded on the south by susa, the capital town of Elam or southern Persia. As a kingdom,it is often said to have been founded by Ashura or Assura, the second son of Shem and the second grandson of Noah, who on leaving Shinar or Babylon travelled northwards and found Nineveh, the capital town of Ashur land or Assyria in 2400-2300 BC.

The history of the Ashur people mentions that, they originated from Babylonia, but later on, received Semitic population and became on nation with them and they were called the Keratite or Kirat people.

In the book ‘ bharat ka brihat Itihas’ by pandit Bhagava mentions that the Assyrians or ashur kings ruled the Indian tribes. This fact is also proved in rigveda ( 10/99/10) that the Ashur kings had colonies in Indus valley and Saurastra. Their ruler was Danavendra Aruru. They had a good connection with Mohenjo-daro and the Harappa civilization. This colonization existed for thousands of years before vedic period.

In 606 B.C the last king of Kirat-Ashur people of Assyria, sin-shar-ishkun, by name perished in the flames of his palace. Thus from the time, the kirat-Ashur people as a nation disappeared and their territories were divided by Greeks, Romans, Babylonians, Persians, Turks and Indians. After many years, the Indian kirat-Ashur people were converted into Rajput hindus for political reason. According to Richard Temple, the population now as the rajputs, are not of Aryan origin, but various descents, generally foreign, though sometimes aboriginal origin occurred during various invasions, a great number of miscellaneous tribes from the north and west had settled in india, each with its ruling family and its people, and thus were set up as clans held together by a highly developed sense of chivalry. The same process had taken place in the case of the more closely knit and more powerful of the aboriginal tribes.

By 7th century A.D, all these had become thoroughly hinduised and adopted Hindu law of “Right conduct”( Dharma). So all ruling families were taken into Aryan Hindu fold and became Kshatriyas. But those kirat-Ashur people who made their permanent settlement in the mountain region abided by their original culture and civilization.

Buddhist writers refer to other Yakkha principalities beside Alavaka. The Kirat vansvali mentions that after twelve generations, one branch of Kirat people migrated from Indo- gangetic plains to the Himalayan region and the other branch to Lanka or Ceylon to south.

The origin of the kirat people of Nepal can be traced back in combination of three races, According to Kirat Mundhum or tradition, three races are known by the names of Khambongbas or the Khambos, the Tangsangthas or the Mongols and Munaphens or the Chinese.

Kiratas or Kirants were indigenous people with very deft archery were brave and doughty warriors. Before the advent of the Kirants, there were Ahir and Abhir rule in the valley. Yalambar, the first Kirant King, overthrew the last king of Abhir dynasty Bhuban Shima. Thus, after defeating the last ruler of Abhir dynasty, Yalambar laid the foundation of the Kirata dynasty that lasted for about 1225 years. When Kirants occupied the valley, they made Matatirtha their capital. The Kirant kingdom during the rule of Yalambar had extended to Tista in the East and Trisidi in the West. It is said Yalambar had gone to witness the battle of Mahabharata between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. He was so brave and powerful that Lord Krishna beheaded him prior to the battle suspecting he might fight for the Kauravas. The Kirants revere him as the God King. In the chronicle of Banasawali, William Kirk Patrick mentions that "the Kirata rule existed from about 900 BC to 300 BC". During this long period, altogether 29 Kirata Kings ruled over the country'.

Boyar

Kirat Period

In the chronicle of Bansawali William Kirk Patrick mentions that the Kirat rule existed from about 900 BC to 300 AD. During this long period altogether 29 Kirat Kings ruled over the country. The 29 Kirat Kings were.



Kirat

1. Yalambar 2. Pari 3. Skandhar 4. Balamba 5. Hriti 6. Humati 7. Jitedasti 8. Galinja 9. Oysgja 10. Suyarma 11. Papa 12. Bunka 13.Swawnanda 14. Sthunko 15. Jinghri



The 1st Kirat King 'Yalambar'

16. Nane 17. Luka 18. Thor 19. Thoko 20. Verma 21. Guja 22. Pushkar 23. Keshu 24. Suja 25. Sansa 26. Gunam 27. Khimbu 28. Patuka 29. Gasti


Kirat - Civilisation


The 1st Kirat King Yalambar laid the foundation of the Kirat dynasty after defeating the last ruler of Abhir dynasty. When Kirats occupied the valley, they made Matatirtha their capital. The Kirat kingdom during the rule of Yalambar had extended to Tista in the East and Trisidi in the West. It is said Yalambar had gone to witness the battle of Mahabharata between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. He was so brave and powerful that Lord Krishna beheaded him prior to the battle suspecting he might fight for the Kauravas. The 7th Kirat King 'Jitedasti'

During the rule of 7th Kirat King Jitedasti, Lord Gautam Buddha had visited the valley with his several disciples. He visited holy places of Swayambhu, Guheswari etc and preached his religious gospels. Kirats of the valley refused to follow his doctrine but welcomed Lord Buddha and his disciples.

The 14th Kiirat King 'Sthunko'

During the rule of 14th Kirat King Sthunko, the Indian Emperor Ashok came to the Kathmandu Valley with his daughter princess Charumati. During his stay in the valley, he had built four stupas in four directions and one in the centre of Patan. He had arranged his daughter Charumati's marriage with a local young prince named Devpal. Prince Devpal and his consort Charumati lived at Chabahil near Pashupati area. Later Charumati had built the stupas of Devpatan after the death of her husband in his memory. Charumati who had later on become a nun herself also got erected a convent where she resided and practiced Lord Buddha's doctrine. The 15th Kirat king 'Jinghri'

During the rule of 15th Kirat King Jinghri, another religious doctrine Jainism was being preached by Mahavir Jain in India. In this regard, Bhadrabhau, a disciple of Mahavir Jain came to Nepal. But comparatively, Jainism could not gain popularity like Buddhism in Nepal. The 28th Kirat King 'Paruka'

During the rule of 28th Kirat King Paruka, the Sombanshi ruler attacked his regime many times from the west. Although he successfully repelled their attacks, he was forced to move to Shankhamul from gokarna. He had built a royal palace called "Patuka" there for him. The 'Patuka' palace is no more to be seen now except its ruins in the form of mound. Patuka had changed Shankhamul into a beautiful town. The 29th Kirat King 'Gasti'

The last King of the Kirat dynasty was Gasti. He proved to be a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirat dynasty that had lasted for about 1225 years. After their defeat, Kirats moved to the Eastern hills of Nepal and settled down divided into small principalities. Their settlements were divided into there regions, i.e. 'WalloKirat' that lied to the East of the Kathmandu, 'MajKirat' or Central Kirat region and 'PalloKirat' that lied to the far East of the Kathmandu valley. These regions are still heavily populated by Kirats.


VIJAYA NAGARA EMPIREதொகு

vijaya nagara empire


Valmiki Nayakas In Vijaya Nagara


The Vijayanagara Empire (Kannada:, Telugu:) was a South Indian empire based in the Deccan Plateau. Established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I, it lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose impressive ruins surround modern Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in modern Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernao Nuniz and Niccolò Da Conti and the literature in local vernaculars provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's power and wealth.

The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known being the group at Hampi. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. Secular royal structures show the influence of the Northern Deccan Sultanate architecture. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies like water management systems for irrigation. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in the languages of Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. History

Differing theories have been proposed regarding the Vijayanagara empire's origins. Some claim that Harihara I and Bukka Raya I, the founders of the empire, were Telugu people first associated with the Kakatiya kingdom who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its declineOther historians propose they were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.rrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India.Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, fortifications, scientific developments and architectural innovations.

Before the early 14th century rise of the Vijayanagara empire, the Hindu kingdoms of the Deccan, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandya Kingdom of Madurai, and the tiny kingdom of Kampili had been repeatedly invaded by Muslims from the north, and by 1336 they had all been defeated by Alla-ud-din Khilji and Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Sultans of Delhi. The Hoysala Empire was the sole remaining Hindu kingdom in the path of the Muslim invasion.After the death of Hoysala Veera Ballala III during a battle against the Sultan of Madurai in 1343, the Hoysala empire merged with the growing Vijayanagara empire.

In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara ("master of the eastern and western seas"). By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddy dynasty of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north.The island of Lanka paid tributes and ambassadors were exchanged with the Ming Dynasty of ChinaThe original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka. It was later moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I.

With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara , the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella. The next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Orissa and undertook important works of fortification and irrigationDeva Raya (called Gajabetekara) succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was possibly the most capable of the Sangama dynasty rulersHe quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Calicut and Quilon in the south. He invaded the island of Lanka and became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim.The empire declined in the late 15th century until the serious attempts by commander Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya in 1485 and by general Tuluva Narasa Nayaka in 1491 to reconsolidate the empire. After nearly two decades of conflict with rebellious chieftains, the empire eventually came under the rule of Krishnadevaraya, the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka.

In the following decades the Vijayanagara empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates.The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious.The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south.Many important monuments were either completed or commissioned during the time of Krishnadevaraya.

Krishnadevaraya was followed by Achyuta Raya in 1530 and in 1542 by Sadashiva Raya while the real power lay with Aliya Rama Raya, the son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya, whose relationship with the Deccan Sultans who allied against him has been debated. Virupaksha temple, Hampi

Virupaksha temple, Hampi

The sudden capture and killing of Aliya Rama Raya in 1565 at the Battle of Talikota, against an alliance of the Deccan sultanates, after a seemingly easy victory for the Vijayanagara armies, created havoc and confusion in the Vijayanagara ranks, which were then completely routed. The Sultanates' army later plundered Hampi and reduced it to the ruinous state in which it remains; it was never re-occupied. Tirumala Raya, the sole surviving commander, left Vijayanagara for Penukonda with vast amounts of treasure on the back of 550 elephants.

The empire went into a slow decline regionally, although trade with the Portuguese continued, and the British were given a land grant for the establishment of Madras. Tirumala Deva Raya was succeeded by his son Sriranga later followed by Venkata who made Chandragiri his capital, repulsed the invasion of the Bahmani Sultanate and saved Penukonda from being captured. His successor, Ramadeva, took power and ruled till 1632 after whose death, Venkata became king and ruled for about ten years after which Vellore was made the capital. The empire was finally conquered by the Sultanates of Bijapur and Golkonda. The largest feudatories of the Vijayanagar empire — the Mysore Kingdom, Keladi Nayaka, Nayaks of Madurai, Nayaks of Tanjore, Nayakas of Chitradurga and Nayak Kingdom of Gingee — declared independence and went on to have a significant impact on the history of South India in the coming centuries. These Nayaka kingdoms lasted into the 18th century while the Mysore Kingdom remained a princely state until Indian Independence in 1947 although they came under the British Raj in 1799 after the death of Tipu Sultan.

Ever since the dawn of history, the South was totally cut from the influence of north. It was Ala-ud-din Khalji who penetrated into south and then onwards south India felt the pinch; Hindu Rajas were deprived of much of their wealth though they weren't dethroned. Oppressive rule of Muhammad Tughlak made Hindus realize the need of organization to get away from the Muslim clutches. It was this time, south produced two great brothers Harihara and Bukka who saved Hindus of south from Muslim clutches. The first dynasty of Vijayanagara is named after these two Sangamas.

Hampi, the capital chosen by the Sangamas occupied an eminently defensible co-ordinates on the Indian map. The city surrounded by the huge blocks of granite, prospered due to the trade of cotton, precious stones and the spices. With the huge trading between Portuguese and the empire, the city expanded day by day despite of few usurpations now and then. The kingdom finally fell to the victorious Islamic army in 1565, and was fully sacked during the Islamic occupation for the next six months. Today, only ruins scattering over few square kilometers, witnesses the then 'City of Victory'.

Vijayanagara produced one of the beautiful series of coins in the Indian history, which had the image of deities on the obverse, and the title on the reverse. Though these small dumpy pagodas having Hindu deities did not record much events to study the history, it did serve every household in uniting under a single Hindu banner to fight against the Islamic rulers.

This web page is divided into sub sections, please use the thumbnail images to penetrate them. COINAGE

The Nayakas coinage does not have anything special to mention as they are mere copies of KrishnaDevaraya's pagodas. It could be due to lack of either empowerment to strike their own coinage or the demand for the popular Krishna Devaraya Pagodas. The obverse of the gold pagodas carried the same "seated Balakrishna with butter in his right hand", but enlarged to fit in the broader flan. The very appearance of it makes to think most of the numismatists as it is "Durgi". It could also be due to the fact that the breasts are shown much bigger than the stomach and also they were known as Durgi Pagodas (Durgi is probably due to the name [Chitra]Durga ). The reverse carried the legend "Sri Pratapa Krishna Raya". Both one pagoda and half pagoda were issued by them. But the fanams bear the deformed Hoysala Shardula symbol on the obverse, but the reverse carried pellets, line and the legend Pra in three lines respectively. The copper coinage either was not much or unattaributable.

Ruler : Nayakas of Chitradurga Year : 1562 - 1779AD Unit : Gold Pagoda, 14mm, 3.40gm Obverse : Balakrishna seated Reverse : Sri (Prat)apa Kri(shna) Raya. Reference : MCSI1 881, Common Ruler : Nayakas of Chitradurga Year : 1562 - 1779AD Unit : Gold half pagoda, 14mm, 3.40gm Obverse : Balakrishna seated Reverse : Sri (Prat)apa Kri(shna) Raya. Reference : MCSI1 881 type, Common Ruler : Nayakas of Chitradurga Year : 1562 - 1779AD Unit : Gold fanam, 8mm, 0.34gm Obverse : Siva Parvati seated Reverse : Sri (Sadasiva Raya) Reference : Scarce

How Kolar Got its Name

The history of Kolar is said to be associated with the epic age, which recalls many legend. These are associated with Avani in Mulbagal Taluk, which was also called Avani Kshetra. It is said that the . Bhagwan valmiki, the author of epic Ramayana,lived here and SriRama also stayed here on the way back to Ayodhya after his conquests of Lanka. The legend goes further to establish that seetha Devi after being rejected by Rama gave birth to her twins Lava and Kusha in this Avani



The hill to the west of Kolar, called the SataSringa Parvata or Hundred peaked Mountain are associated with story of parasurama, son of Jamadagni and episodes of the story of the fight between king Kartaviryarjuna and parasurama on account of Surabhi and divine cow of plenty possessed by Jamadagni , the killing of Kartaviryarjuna by Parasurama and subsequently murder of Jamadagni by the sons of Kartaviryarjuna and self immolation of Renuka are found on this hill. The oath taken by Parasurama to whole Kshatriya race are said to have taken place on the hills. It is said that the Kolahala on the death of Kartaviryarjuna gave its name to the town later become Kolar. Brief History of Kolar

Kolar is a place of great antiquity , but has passed through so many vicissitudes  and was so much devasted by warfare and what little now remains in it is ancient. The Cholas and pallavas have contributed their builders. Later , the city was ruled by the Vijayanagara Kings. The fell of Vijayanagara empire has made room for several feudal lords and subsequently it came under the rule of Mysore Rajas. Hyder Ali Khan and Tippusultan effected several improvements since they were the last rulers before the IV Mysore war, when Tippusultan was defeated and Kingdom was shared by Mysore Rajas, Hyderabad Nijam, Marathas & Britishers ultimately. This town came under the rule of Maharaja of Mysore and since then several improvements have taken place and with a result that it became the district Head quarters. It was Krishnaraja Wodeyar who was responsible for connecting the road and Railways. As seen from study of above facts, the town has got a glorious and rich cultural heritage. The Makbara or Tomb of Hyder Ali's father is one of the Principal old buildings in Kolar and it is still maintained by Endowments. The major and important  temples in the town are Kolaramma Temple and Someswara Temple.

Kolar Sight seeing Someswara Temple: This is fine example of Vijayanagara style, complete with a massive pillared mukha mandapa. Heavy Prakara walls , ornate Kalyana mantapa and a Devi Shrine, lofty gopura is known for fine stucco figures on the tower , while the door frame is carved in typical Vijayanagara style with dwarapalas etc.. The temple has large tank (Kalyani) also. There are vijayanagara inscriptions on the wall of store room and the yagashala datable to 15 cent A.D.


The Kolar Betta or Kolar Hills which are also known as Satasringa hills present a barren and rockery appearance on all sides but on the tops are some villages with irrigable lands. A perennial spring on the east of the hills called Antaraganga is deemed sacred culminated a small pond having a mantapa in the center supplied with water falling through the mouth of a stone Bull. This Place is also a popular picnic spot..


Kurudumale: The famous Kurudumale Temple is situated 12 Kms away from Mulabagal, was the capital of Hoysala Dynasty. The gaint 13.5 foot sculpture of kurudumale Ganesha and the Someswara Temple, attract thousands of visitors from the surrounding states.

Koti Lingeshwara: Kammasandra, a village 6 Kms away from Kolar Gold Fieid has a collection of number of Shiva Lingas. More than 80 lakhs of such Lingas have already been installed here since 1974. Among them 108 ft. height Linga is the main attraction. Accommodation and free food facilities are also available for Tourists. The Kolar Gold Fields is located 27 Kms away from Kolar. The K.G.F. City is entirely a creation of the Gold mining industry. The Champion mine is the deepest mine in the world. The BEML, recently established at this place by the Union Government as a large scale industry for the manufacture of Earth moving Equipments and Crawler tractors.



Avani known as Gaya of the South, Avani has a cluster of Ramalingeshwara Temple all with in one courtyard dedicated to Lakshmana, Bharatha, and Shatrugna as well as a shankara muth built by the Nolamba dynasty. Legend has it, that the hill above was home to Valmiki's Ashram, where Lava and Kusha were Born and raised. How to reach Kolar

Kolar is well connected by rail and road with almost all the important towns and cities in the State. The nearest airport is at Bangalore.


போயர் கட்டுரை தொடர்பாகதொகு

வணக்கம் பிரேம் லோகநாதன், போயர் கட்டுரை தொடர்பாக சில ஆலோசனைகள். தமிழ் விக்கி கட்டுரையில் மற்ற விக்கிபபீடியா கட்டுரைகளை (ஆங்கில விக்கி) வெளியிணைப்பாகவோ, மேற்கோளாகவோ பயன்படுத்த வேண்டாம். மேலும் மேற்கோளாக ஒரு இணைப்பை சேர்க்கும் போது <ref></ref> என்ற tagல் சேர்க்கவும், இது பற்றி மேலும் விவரங்களுக்கு விக்கிப்பீடியா:மேற்கோள் சுட்டுதல் பார்க்கவும். கூகிள் புத்தகத்தில் இருந்து எடுத்தவற்றை மேற்கோளாக இணைப்புடன் (link) சேர்க்கவும். மேலும் விக்கியில் ஐயா, திரு போன்றவற்றை உபயோக்கிக்க தேவையில்லை, ஒருவரையொருவர் பெயர் சொல்லியே அழைக்கலாம் :), வேறு ஏதேனும் உதவி தேவைப்படின் தயங்காமல் இங்கேயோ அல்லது என் பேச்சுப் பக்கத்திலோ கேட்கவும். நன்றி--சண்முகம்ப7 (பேச்சு) 06:50, 27 செப்டெம்பர் 2012 (UTC)

i am thank you so much sir, i will not forget your help to improve my pages. i will follow as you said. i will get in touch with you ever sir, my mail id premloganathan@gmail.com

shanmugam please help me, to edit the page of போயர் கட்டுரை only one time, i will follow the things accordingly and develop the article as you said and teach. THANK YOU...

கருத்துதொகு

you should write boya nayakars history in seperate , this is common nayakar title article , dont put only boyars - கட்டுரைப் பக்கத்தில் 203.109.94.13 விட்டுச் சென்ற கருத்து.

நீங்கள் கூறுவது சரியே. ஏற்கனவே போயர் கட்டுரையில் நாயக்கர் கட்டுரையில் உள்ள போயர் பற்றிய பெரும் பகுதி உள்ளதால், இவற்றை நீக்குவதற்கு எனக்கும் உடன்பாடே. இரு கட்டுரைகளும் மீள உரை திருத்தப்பட வேண்டும். (தென்காசி கவனிக்க.)--Kanags \உரையாடுக 06:52, 27 சனவரி 2013 (UTC)

Sir, BOTH THE ARTICLES WAS DEVELOPED BY ME ONLY.... FIRST I STARTED TO WRITE போயர் ARTICLE IN TAMIL, SO I READ MANY MORE HISTORY WITHIN THE BOYAR, THEY WERE NAYAKAR AND THEY ONLY HAVING MANY BRANCHES, ALL THE BRANCHES WERE KNOWN AS NAYAKAR, ONCE I GOT THROUGH KNOWLEDGE IN THE BOYA NAYAKAR AND TRY TO DEVELOP THE NAYAKAR நாயக்கர் IN TAMIL, SO HERE NO BIAS WITH ME AND WRITING OF BOYAR போயர் ARTICLE AND DEVELOPING OF NAYAKAR நாயக்கர் ANOTHER ARTICLE, JUST I HELPED EACH ARTICLES, FIRST ONE WAS FULLY WRITTEN BY ME AND SECOND ONE WAS DEVELOPED ME, BECAUSE I STUDIED THE HISTORY THOROUGHLY, IF ONCE I FAIL, THEN THE ENTIRE SOCIETY MAY LEFT THE ORIGINAL HISTORY, SO I GIVEN ALL THE DATA NEAR BY SAME, AND BOTH WAS DEVELOPED BY ME, SO THE ARTICLES STYLE WILL BE SAME, SO IF YOU TRY TO DELETE BY THE SUGGESTION OF OF FAKE ID USER IDEOLOGIES, THAT KIND OF USERS WERE SAME, AND ONLY THOUGHT IS SEPARATE THE NAYAKAR TITLE WITHIN THEMSELVES, BUT THE TRUTH IS NOT LIKE THAT, SO THAT KIND OF PEOPLE READY TO DESTROY THE ORIGINAL STANDARD OF ARTICLE WRITINGS. BECAUSE I AM A RESEARCHER.... --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 08:04, 28 சனவரி 2013 (UTC)

Sir, wish you all, but the boya nayakar is the primary to all the community, all the nayakar communities comes under that, and read it carefully the hample(raja combalam), and gavara, kajale (balija) and chaudary(velamma and sub division of vellamma is kamma), everything i have been mentioned in that, the thing is about the standard of the readers, they does not know about the community system and various names of the community and so on.... here just given single line explanations only, even if i expand that, it will be around 100pages right now, and gone through more than 10,000 pages of different books and gazetteer of Indian Government, and all the basic evidences given in that citations, why you people try to blame others ever, even if you have the own interest then you may also go and read the INDIAN GOVERNMENT GAZETTEER, BRITISH GOVERNMENT GAZETTEER AND MUHAMADIAN GOVERNMENT GAZETTEER OF INDIAN TRIBES and expand the articles with same originality, Thank you..... Please realize from the real one, and the real things will not destroyed by others.... those documents were kept by various universities digital libraries around the world..... remain the same record will be avail till the life of earth.......please rethink about doing something..... and please rethink before describe about someone or the article, because we submitted all the references in proper according to the standards of wikipedia...... thanks once again to all of you who has read it...--Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 05:29, 28 சனவரி 2013 (UTC)

Please see, all the naidu/nayaka communities comes under this explanation, and ask readers carefully to describe something about nayakar/nayaka/naidu கி பி பதினாறாம் நூற்றடில் கருநாடக தேசத்தினை அரசாட்சி செய்துவந்த, சித்ரதுர்கா அரச குடும்பமானது வேடர்கள் எனும் போய நாயக்கர்களின் வம்சமாகும். இவ்வேட குடும்பம் இராமாயணம் எழுதிய கிராத் (Kirat ) வம்சாவளியான வால்மீகி குலத்தினை சார்ந்தவர்களாவர். நாயக் (Nayak) எனும் பெயர், மலைமீது வேட்டையாடும் போயர் எனும் வேடர்களின் பரம்பரை பட்டமாகும்,[1]மேலும், ஓடும் நீரில் மீன்களை வேட்டையாடும் இனமான வால்மீகி மக்கள் என அழைக்கப்படும். போய பாளையக்காரர்கள் முத்துராஜா எனப்படும் ராஜூ நாயக்கரின் ஒரு பிரிவே ஆகும். முடிராஜ் இனத்தை முத்தராசி , தேனுகோல்லு, முத்துராசன், முத்திராஜுலு, நாயக், பாண்டு, தெலுகுடு, தெலுகா, தலாரி, கோழி என்று ஆந்திரப் பிரதேசதிலும், கங்கவார்,கங்கமதா,பேஸ்த, போய, கபீர், காபல்கார், கங்கைபுத்திரர், மற்றும் கோழி என்றும் கருநாடகத்தில் அழைப்பர். தமிழகத்தில் முத்திராயர் மற்றும் முத்திராயன் என்றும் மேலும் இம்மக்களை இந்தியாவின் வடமாநிலங்களில் கோழி (Koli) என்றும் அழைப்பர்.[2]

மராத்த போயர்கள் (maratha Bhois ) பின்வருமாறு பின்வரும் இருபத்தி மூன்று பிரிவுகளாகும்.

  1. அதானே - Adane
  2. லோனரே - Lonare
  3. தம்க்ஹனே - Tamkhane
  4. லடகே - Landage
  5. நமதே - Nemade
  6. க்ஹண்ட்களே - Khandgale
  7. தகே - Dake
  8. வண்கஹிலே - Wankhile
  9. ஹிரவே - Hirawe
  10. ஜிரங்கே - Jirange
  11. கேசபுரே - Kesapure
  12. ஜம்டடே - Jamdade
  13. காஜலே - Kajale (BALIJA PEOPLE)
  14. பபலே - Pabale
  15. புஜங்கே - Bhujange
  16. கம்பள - Kambale (RAJA KAMPALAM IN TAMIL)
  17. சுர்டுஷே - Surdushe
  18. சட்டே - Satode
  19. பவனே - Bavne
  20. கவண்டே - Gavande (KANNADA UKKALIGA, UKALIGA GOWDER, TAMIL VETTUVA KAVUNDAR)
  21. பாடச்கள் - Bhadaskal
  22. கோனே - Ghone & (VELLAMMA=KAMMA IS BRANCH OF GHONE./ GONE)
  23. காதமல் - Ghatmal

முதலியனவாகும்.[3]


போயர்கள் (Bhoya மற்றும் கொற்கு (Korku) இனத்தவர்கள் தார் (Dhar ) எனும் நகரினை பூர்விகமாக கொண்ட வம்சாவளியினர் ஆவர். மேலும் பெப்ச (Bopcha ) எனும் கொற்கு (Korku இனம், போயர்கள் (Bhoya - Cultivator), பாரதி (Parthi - Hunter ), கோழி (Kohil - Local Cultivating Caste ), சனரியா (Sanaria - Tribe ), சௌதரி (Chaudhari - Head Man), பட்லிய (Patlia - Patel or Chief office of a village ), மற்றும் சோன்வானியா (Sonwania - one who purifies offenders among Gonds & other tribes) ஆகியோர் ஒரே ரத்த இனத்தினை (வம்சாவளியினர்) சார்ந்தவர்கள் இவர்கள் தங்களுக்குள் பெண் குடுத்து பெண் எடுதுக்கொள்ளுவர்.[4] IN THIS LAST PRAGRAPH THE CHAUDHARI-HEAD MAN = VELAMMA AND KAMMA IS BRANCH OF VELAMMA.....

SO HERE, IN NAYAKAR TITLE I GIVEN ALL THE PRIMARY DETAILS AND ADDED ALL THE NAIDU/NAYAKA/NAYAKAR COMMUNITIES WITHOUT ANY BIAS.... DEAR FRIENDS PLEASE READ ALL THE REFERENCES BEFORE SAYING SOMETHING ABOUT ARTICLE AND SOMEONE.... THANKS.. AND TRY TO DEVELOP IN DETAIL IN RECENT / FUTURE DAYS... IT WILL TAKE LONG TIME, PLEASE WAIT TILL THAT..... WITH REGARDS --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 06:22, 28 சனவரி 2013 (UTC)

மேற்கோள்கள்தொகு

  1. Wilson Hunter, William (1885). The imperial gazetteer of India - Contributor: University of Massachusetts, Boston. 3. London: Trübner & co.. பக். 428. http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/william-wilson-hunter/the-imperial-gazetteer-of-india-volume-3-tnu/page-51-the-imperial-gazetteer-of-india-volume-3-tnu.shtml. பார்த்த நாள்: 2012-10-17. 
  2. – CHANGE OF GROUP FROM ‘D’ TO GROUP ‘A’ IN THE LIST of B.C.s, MUDIRAJ, MUTRASI, TENUGOLLU CASTE (1994). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. pdf. Andhra Pradesh: Government Press. பக். 1. http://www.aponline.gov.in/APPORTAL/Departments/BC%20Welfare%20Reports/PDFS/2009/MUDIRAJ%20CASTE.pdf. பார்த்த நாள்: 2012-10-10. 
  3. CASTES AND TRIBES OF H. E. H. THE NIZAM'S DOMINIONS. I. BOMBAY: THE TIMES PRESS. 1920. பக். 77-84. http://archive.org/stream/cu31924088964154/cu31924088964154_djvu.txt. பார்த்த நாள்: 2012-10-31. 
  4. The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. IV. London: Macmillan and Co., Limited St. Martin’s Street, London. 1916. பக். 340. http://www.archive.org/stream/tribescastesofce04russ/tribescastesofce04russ_djvu.txt. பார்த்த நாள்: 2012-10-31. 

உதவி தேவைப்படின் கேட்கவும்தொகு

SIR, I AM PREMLOGANATHAN, I DEVELOPLED THE ARTICLE OF http://ta.wikipedia.org/s/25ue, YESTERDAY I TRIED TO LOGIN THE ID OF MINE, I COULD NOT OPEN IT, AND SENT A PASS WORD REQUEST TO YOU TO MY MAIL ID premloganathan@gmail.com SO PLEASE HELP ME IN URGENT, I HAVE WRITTEN SOME OTHER ENGLISH ARTICLE FOR PUBLICATION IN ENGLISH WIKI. THANKS WITH WARD REGARDS, premloganathan எனது பேச்சுப்பக்கத்தில் கருத்திட்டமைக்கு நன்றி, தொகுத்தல் தொடர்பாக எதேனும் உதவி தேவைப்படின் கேட்கவும், நன்றி--சங்கீர்த்தன் (பேச்சு) 15:57, 11 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC) sir, now i submitted, an article there, please check the eligibility and edition if you need, thank you.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Premloganathan/sandbox#Nayaka --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 12:29, 24 சனவரி 2013 (UTC)

வேண்டுகோள்தொகு

வணக்கம் பிரேம், உங்களுக்கு இங்கு எதிரிகள் யாரும் இல்லை. நாங்கள் உங்களை ஆதாரம் தான் கேட்கிறோம். உங்கள் கட்டுரைகளை வேண்டுமென்று நீக்குவதில்லை. சாதி தொடர்பான கட்டுரைகளுக்கு ஆதாரம் கண்டிப்பாக தேவைதான். நீங்கள் பல இடங்களில் முரண்பாடான, ஆதாரமற்ற தகவல்களை வழங்கியுள்ளீர்கள். சில ஆதாரங்கள் கட்டுரை முழுமைக்கும் பொருந்தாது. எனவே, அனைத்திற்கும் ஆதாரம் தேவைப்படும். தவறாக நினைக்காதீர்கள்.

  1. ஆங்கிலத் தலைப்புடன் கட்டுரை தொடங்கக் கூடாது. ஆங்கிலத்திலும் எழுதக் கூடாது. அப்படி எழுத விரும்பினால் ஆங்கில விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் எழுதுங்கள். உங்கள் தவறை சுட்டிக் காட்டுவது என் பொறுப்பு. திருத்திக் கொள்ளுங்கள். மீண்டும் மீண்டும் இவ்வாறு எழுதினால் தடை செய்யப்படுவீர்கள். உங்களுக்கு தெரிந்திருக்காது என்று கூறுகிறேன்.
)

மேலும், உங்களை நாங்கள் தொந்தரவு செய்வதில்லை. நீங்கள் தான் அப்படி நினைக்கிறீர்கள். உங்களை அவமதிப்பதோ, அவமானப்படுத்துவதோ, நம்பாமல் இருப்பதோ எங்கள் தொழில் இல்லை. உதவி தேவையென்றால் தாராளமாகக் கேளுங்கள். நன்றி -தமிழ்க்குரிசில் (பேச்சு) 13:00, 19 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)


திருவாளர் தமிழ்க்குரிசில் அவர்களுக்கு நன்றி --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 07:18, 20 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)

நீங்கள் ஏற்கனவே தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாராக, நம் குழுவில்தானே இருக்கிறீர்கள்! -தமிழ்க்குரிசில் (பேச்சு) 09:50, 20 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)

அப்படியா நண்பரே! மிக்க நன்றி! --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 10:03, 20 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)

நட்புதொகு

பயனர் பிரேம் வணக்கம். நீங்கள் இங்கு சுகந்திரமாக கட்டுரை எழுதலாம். ஆனால் தயவு கூர்ந்து ஆங்கிலத்தில் எழுதுவது தமிழ் விக்கிக்கு ஏற்புடையது இல்லை. அதனால் உங்களால் முடிந்தவரை தமிழில் கட்டுரை எழுதுங்கள் அதேவேளை உங்களால் முடிந்த அதற்கான ஆதாரங்களையும் முன்வையுங்கள். உங்களில் தவறு இல்லை. புதுப் பயனர்கள் இப்படியான பிழைகள் விடுவது இயல்பே. அதனால் கவலை வேண்டாம். உங்கள் விக்கிப் பயணத்தை தொடருங்கள். உங்களுக்கு ஏதாவது உதவி வேண்டும் என்றால் உங்கள் பேச்சுப் பக்கத்தில் கேளுங்கள். நன்றி --சிவம் 14:07, 19 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)


திருவாளர் சிவா அவர்களுக்கு நன்றி --Premloganathan (பேச்சு) 07:17, 20 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)

விக்கிப்பீடியா:கலந்துரையாடல்தொகு

விக்கிப்பீடியா:கலந்துரையாடல் என்ற பக்கத்தில் கூறப்பட்ட எண்ணங்களுக்கு, எனது எண்ணப்பகிர்வைக் கூறியுள்ளேன்.-- உழவன் +உரை.. 04:06, 30 அக்டோபர் 2012 (UTC)


sir, this is premoganathan, i have written tamil boyar in wikipedia, now a days many persons confusing and doing the jobs with personal bios so please help me to retain my workings of earlier with good research work. expecting your feedback to me, premloganathan@gmail.com

tbதொகு

வணக்கம், Premloganathan. உங்களுக்கான புதிய தகவல்கள் Shanmugamp7 இன் பேச்சு பக்கத்தில் உள்ளன.
நீங்கள் இந்த அறிவிப்பை {{பேச்சு}} வார்ப்புருவை நீக்குவதன் மூலம் நீக்கலாம்.

--சண்முகம்ப7 (பேச்சு) 12:30, 14 பெப்ரவரி 2013 (UTC)

"https://ta.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=பயனர்_பேச்சு:Premloganathan&oldid=2503451" இருந்து மீள்விக்கப்பட்டது